Table 3

Relationship between persistent joint pain, physical activity and health-related quality of life in former recreational and elite cricketer subgroups

Weekly METSPCSMCS
Unadjusted effect*
(95% CI)
Adjusted† effect*
(95% CI)
Unadjusted effect‡
(95% CI)
Adjusted† effect‡
(95% CI)
Unadjusted
effect‡
(95% CI)
Adjusted†
effect‡
(95% CI)
Former elite cricketers
(n=280)
 Upper extremity persistent joint pain70
(−1.6 to 324), p=0.09
88
(−0.1 to 356), p=0.05
−5.3
(−8.6 to 2.0), p=0.001
−5.3
(−8.8 to 1.9), p=0.002
0.055
(−2.3 to 3.4), p=0.70
5.3
(−1.1 to 11.7), p=0.10
 Lower extremity persistent joint pain5.2
(−28 to 97), p=0.56
8.2
(−21 to 106), p=0.45
−7.5
(−10.1 to 4.9), p<0.001
−7.0
(−9.7 to 4.3), p<0.001
0.1
(−1.7 to 2.7), p=0.64
2.2
(−2.7 to 7.0), p=0.39
 No persistent joint painReference groupReference groupReference group
Former recreational cricketers
(n=423)
 Upper extremity persistent joint pain5.6
(−37 to 117), p=0.58
10.5
(−29 to 149), p=0.47
−5.6
(−7.9 to 3.3), p<0.001
−5.8
(−8.1 to 3.4), p<0.001
0.8
(−1.5 to 3.0), p=0.50
1.1
(−1.1 to 3.2), p=0.35
 Lower extremity persistent joint pain−0.7
(−49 to 29), p=0.83
1.8
(−26 to 61), p=0.68
−6.6
(−8.3 to 4.9), p<0.001
−6.2
(−8.0 to 4.5), p<0.001
−0.8
(−1.1 to 2.7), p=0.33
1.2
(−0.5 to 2.8), p=0.17
 No persistent joint painReference groupReference groupReference group
  • *Participants with memory impairments were excluded from the analyses.

  • †Estimates are adjusted for age, body mass index and comorbidities.

  • ‡Comorbidities were defined as not present (0) and presence of at least one comorbidity (1). Comorbidities included were diabetes, stroke, skin cancer and other cancer.

  • §Upper extremity (shoulder, elbow, wrist or hand) and lower extremity (hip, knee or ankle) persistent joint pain were assessed by asking individuals if they had joint-specific pain on ‘most days of the last month’.

  • ¶Short-form questionnaire (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form). Physical activity was calculated as METS per week; METS were transformed prior to analysis by taking the square root and then retransformed by squaring after analysis.

  • **Short-Form 8 Health Survey. PCS were calculated using norm-based scoring (population norm 50, SD 10, high scorer=better health-related quality of life). MCS were calculated using norm-based scoring (population norm 50, SD 10, high scorer=better health-related quality of life).

  • MCS, mental component score; METS, metabolic equivalents; PCS, physical component score.