Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
  • Adultsā‰„18 years of age.

  • Primary diagnosis of advanced liver disease, advanced chronic liver disease, liver failure, end-stage liver disease, decompensated liver disease or decompensated cirrhosis.

  • Presence of physical (eg, joint pain, muscle cramps, skin discomfort, generalised body pain, ascites, back pain, pruritus and headache) or psychological (eg, anxiety, irritability, depression, fatigue, mental health disorders, substance use disorders and emotional distress) or social (eg, activity interference) symptoms associated with pain.

  • Patients<17 years of age.

  • No identified diagnosis related to liver disease.

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma, cancer metastases, compensated cirrhosis and liver transplant recipients.

  • Absence of physical or psychological symptoms associated with pain.

  • Prevalence of pain.

  • Classification of pain.

  • Pain characteristics.

  • Pain assessment.

  • Pain management.

  • Observed or self-reported physical, psychological or social determinants of pain.

  • Report that relates to the assessment or management of pain.

  • No discussion on either prevalence of pain, classification of pain, pain characteristics, pain assessment, observed or self-reported physical, psychological or social determinants of pain.

  • Lack of pain assessment and management discussion.

  • Research studies dated 1 January 1990 to May 2019.

  • Research studies from any geographical location, healthcare setting and sociocultural influence.

  • Research studies that are available in English.

  • Research studies that are available in full text.

  • Research studies dated 31 December 1989 and older.

  • Non-English research studies.

  • Research studies that are not available in full text.

Study design
  • Primary source research studies involving human participants.

  • Quantitative studies (eg, randomised controlled trials, before and after studies, cohort and case studies).

  • Qualitative studies (eg, ethnography, phenomenological, grounded theory and descriptive studies).

  • Mixed-method studies (eg, sequential, convergent designs).

  • Non-primary source research studies that provide summaries and do not introduce any new knowledge (eg, literature reviews, topical reviews, commentaries, opinion papers).

  • Research studies not involving humans (eg, animal, cellular).

  • Presentation abstracts (eg, oral, poster, conference).