Table 2

Relationship between persistent joint pain, physical activity and health-related quality of life

Weekly METS¶PCS**MCS**
Unadjusted effect*
(95% CI)
Adjusted† effect*
(95% CI)
Unadjusted effect‡
(95% CI)
Adjusted† effect‡
(95% CI)
Unadjusted effect‡
(95% CI)
Adjusted† effect‡
(95% CI)
Upper extremity persistent joint pain§20.3
(−3.2 to 117), p=0.83
(−1.1 to 136), p=0.10
(−7.3 to 3.6), p<0.001
(−7.4 to 3.5), p<0.001
(−0.2 to 0.1), p=0.35
(−0.2 to 0.1), p=0.26
Lower extremity persistent joint pain§0.3
(−12.5 to 21.0), p=0.16
(−7.5 to 49.4), p=0.39
(−8.4 to 5.5), p<0.001
(−8.1 to 5.2), p<0.001
(−0.2 to 0.1), p=0.08
(−0.2 to 0.1), p=0.06
No persistent joint painReference groupReference groupReference group
  • *Participants with memory impairments were excluded from the analyses.

  • †Estimates are adjusted for age, body mass index and comorbidities.

  • ‡Comorbidities were defined as none present (0) and presence of at least one comorbidity (1). Comorbidities included were diabetes, stroke, skin cancer and other cancer.

  • §Upper extremity (shoulder, elbow, wrist or hand) and lower extremity (hip, knee or ankle) persistent joint pain were assessed by asking individuals if they had joint-specific pain on ‘most days of the last month’.

  • ¶Short-form questionnaire (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form). Physical activity was calculated as METS per week; METS were transformed prior to analysis by taking the square root and then retransformed by squaring after analysis.

  • **Short-Form 8 Health Survey. PCS and MCS were calculated using norm-based scoring (population norm 50, SD 10, high scorer=better health-related quality of life).

  • MCS, mental component score; METS, metabolic equivalents; PCS, physical component score.