Table 1

Patient characteristics

London HASUs
(n=7094)
Rest of England
(n=61 145)
DifferenceP value*
Sex0.0001
 Male3719 (52%)30 536 (50%)2%
 Female3375 (48%)30 609 (50%)−2%
Age, years (mean (SD))72 (15)75 (13)−3 years<0.0001
Ethnic group<0.0001
 White4332 (61%)56 221 (92%)−31%
 Mixed72 (1%)141 (<1%)<1%
 Black650 (9%)1272 (2%)7%
 Asian505 (7%)362 (<1%)6%
 Other526 (7%)358 (<1%)6%
 Not available1009 (14%)2791 (5%)9%
Type of stroke0.0531
 Infarction6252 (88%)54 355 (89%)−1%
 Primary intracerebral haemorrhage842 (12%)6790 (11%)1%
Comorbidities prior to admission
 Congestive heart failure439 (6%)3204 (5%)1%0.0008
 Hypertension4284 (60%)32 447 (53%)7%<0.0001
 Atrial fibrillation1229 (17%)12 655 (21%)−4%<0.0001
 Diabetes1705 (24%)12 024 (20%)4%<0.0001
 Stroke/TIA1688 (24%)16 752 (27%)−4%<0.0001
mRS score before stroke<0.0001
 Slight or no disability (0–2)5552 (78%)49 574 (81%)−3%
 At least moderate disability (3-5)1542 (22%)11 571 (19%)3%
Level of consciousness on arrival at the hospital†0.0263
 Alert5991 (84%)51 230 (84%)0%
 Not alert, but respond to minor stimulation663 (9%)5724 (9%)0%
 Not alert, requires repeated stimulation281 (4%)2438 (4%)0%
 Unresponsive159 (2%)1753 (3%)−1%
 NIHSS on arrival at the hospital, score (median (IQR))5 (2–11)4 (2–9)1 IQR<0.0001
Method of admission to the hospital<0.0001
 Already inpatient173 (2%)3288 (5%)−3%
 Ambulance5966 (84%)47 096 (77%)7%
 Walk-in955 (14%)10 761 (18%)−4%
Time from onset of stroke symptoms to admission<0.0001
 <180 min2741 (39%)24 233 (40%)−1%
 180–359 min759 (11%)5871 (10%)1%
 ≥360 min1516 (21%)10 773 (18%)3%
 Time of onset not known2078 (29%)20 268 (33%)4%
  • Figures are n(%) except for age, which is mean (SD), and NIHSS on arrival at the hospital, which is median (IQR). The sample with NIHSS scores on arrival was n=6571 in London HASUs and n=47 126 in the rest of England.

  • †Level of consciousness scores taken from admission NIHSS score (Question 1a).

  • *P value threshold adjusted for multiple testing is 0.0038.

  • HASU, hyperacute stroke units; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.