Table 2

Age- and sex-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted ORs of hearing impairment by the presence of proteinuria

Age and sex adjustedMultivariable adjusted*
Case/NOR (95% CI)Case/NOR (95% CI)
>30 dB<at 1 kHz and/or>40 dB at 4 kHz (total moderate hearing impairment)
Proteinuria
 −143/5180Reference143/5180Reference
 +/−6/2890.92 (0.40 to 2.12)6/2890.92 (0.40 to 2.13)
 ≥+13/2301.99 (1.10 to 3.61)13/2301.85 (1.01 to 3.39)
>30 dB at 1 kHz
Proteinuria
 −39/5180Reference39/5180Reference
 +/−2/2891.06 (0.26 to 4.45)2/2891.10 (0.26 to 4.60)
 ≥+3/2301.68 (0.51 to 5.50)3/2301.31 (0.39 to 4.42)
>40 dB at 4 kHz
Proteinuria
 −113/5180Reference113/5180Reference
 +/−5/2891.00 (0.40 to 2.50)5/2891.00 (0.40 to 2.49)
 ≥ +11/2302.09 (1.10 to 3.99)11/2302.03 (1.06 to 3.92)
  • *The multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hearing impairment was calculated with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (kg/m2), hypertension (yes or no), diabetes mellitus (yes or no), serum creatinine (sex-specific quintile) and current smoking status (yes or no) at baseline, as well as history of noisy work environment from 2008 to 2016 (yes or no).