Table 1

Criteria for classifying employees into the HRA categories

TopicCriteria
Work disability risk: at least one of the topics below
 Doubt of work abilitySelf-rated future work ability: uncertain of own ability (‘uncertain’), or quite sure (‘not able’) not being able to continue in the current job due to health reasons.
 Impairment due to musculoskeletal problems at workNumerical rating scale (0–10) score ≥5.
 Pain hampering workAt least moderate pain that affects working ability at minimum three times a week.
 Sleep problemsProblems in falling asleep or night awakenings AND daytime sleepiness daily or almost daily.
 Depressive symptomsDEPS score ≥11.
 Work-related constant fatigueFeeling being squeezed empty.
 Work-related constant stressFeeling tense, strained, nervous and/or anxious because work-related issues are on one’s mind all the time.
Health risks: at least one of the topics below
 Weight problems*BMI ≥30 or ≤18.5.
 Diabetes riskDiabetes risk score ≥11.
 Excess use of alcoholMales ≥350 mL/week, females ≥240 mL/week (expressed as absolute alcohol).
Some symptoms: at least one of the topics below
 Impairment due to musculoskeletal problems at workNumerical rating scale (0–10) score=4.
 Some depressive symptomsDEPS score between 8 and 10.
 Some sleep problemsProblems in falling asleep or night awakenings AND daytime sleepiness 3–5 times a week.
 A chronic diseaseSelf-reported chronic diseases.
 SymptomsSelf-reported symptoms.
Lifestyle issues: at least one of the topics below
 SmokingSmoking=yes.
 Physical inactivityNo physical activity during leisure time nor while commuting to work.
 Overweight*BMI between 25 and 30.
No findings
 Previous criteria are not met
  • *Overweight and weight problems were not included in the HRA category but analysed separately in the fully adjusted model.

  • BMI, body mass index; DEPS, Depression Scale; HRA, health risk appraisal.