Table 7

Univariable logistic regression analyses assessing the value of clinical characteristics in the diagnosis of TIA

VariablesOR (95% CI)P value
Demographic characteristics
Age per year1.06 (1.03 to 1.08)<0.001
Male sex1.04 (0.59 to 1.83)0.89
Medical history
Cerebrovascular disease1.54 (0.79 to 3.01)0.21
 TIA1.67 (0.73 to 3.84)0.23
 Ischaemic stroke1.41 (0.55 to 3.62)0.48
 Haemorrhagic stroke1.61 (0.31 to 8.51)0.57
CVD3.25 (1.56 to 6.78)0.002
 Angina pectoris8.32 (1.06 to 65.25)0.04
 Myocardial infarction19.15*0.002
 Peripheral artery disease2.60 (0.28 to 23.60)0.40
 Vascular surgery3.37 (1.10 to 10.32)0.03
 Renal insufficiency1.44 (0.48 to 4.30)0.52
 Atrial fibrillation1.67 (0.62 to 4.50)0.31
Epilepsy3.23*0.52
Migraine0.36 (0.15 to 0.88)0.03
Cardiovascular risk factors
BMI per unit increase in kg/m2 1.01 (0.94 to 1.08)0.85
Smoking (ever vs never)1.04 (0.59 to 1.85)0.89
Alcohol consumption per unit/week0.99 (0.96 to 1.03)0.62
Positive family history of CVD†0.58 (0.33 to 1.04)0.07
Hypertension2.44 (1.38 to 4.35)<0.001
Diabetes mellitus1.50 (0.62 to 3.63)0.37
Hyperlipidaemia1.67 (0.94 to 2.99)0.08
Course of symptoms
Duration of symptoms‡1.08 (0.93 to 1.25)0.31
Sudden onset of symptoms2.43 (0.89 to 6.67)0.09
Preceding symptoms0.69 (0.38 to 1.25)0.23
Occurrence of symptoms in full intensity2.00 (0.95 to 4.19)0.07
Type of symptoms
Motor symptoms2.33 (1.28 to 4.23)0.01
Sensory symptoms1.45 (0.82 to 2.58)0.20
Vision problem0.53 (0.29 to 0.97)0.04
 Blurred vision0.29 (0.12 to 0.73)0.008
 Diplopia0.46 (0.17 to 1.30)0.14
 Hemianopia0.84 (0.28 to 2.51)0.75
 Amaurosis fugax3.36 (0.72 to 15.76)0.12
Communication problem1.35 (0.77 to 2.38)0.29
Dysphasia0.99 (0.53 to 1.84)0.98
Dysarthria1.71 (0.80 to 3.68)0.17
Positive visual phenomena0.25 (0.10 to 0.61)0.002
Vertigo0.77 (0.39 to 1.54)0.46
Disturbed balance or gait1.14 (0.57 to 2.28)0.71
Headache0.33 (0.18 to 0.60)<0.001
Light-headedness0.66 (0.37 to 1.16)0.15
Palpitations0.31 (0.11 to 0.87)0.03
Presyncope0.44 (0.19 to 1.07)0.07
Loss of consciousness0.12 (0.01 to 1.05)0.06
  • *A Fisher’s exact test was used in case of observed values of zero.

  • †A positive family history was defined as ≥1 first-grade family member with myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke or peripheral artery disease <65 years of age.

  • ‡Duration of symptoms in minutes was naturally log-transformed.

  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.