Table 3

Association between child social care status and educational outcomes, with adjustment for early life and KS4 variables

Attainment OutcomeCare status during KS4Model 1*
(age and sex)
Model 2†
(KS4 variables)
Model 3‡
(early life variables)
Model 4§
(fully adjusted)
OR ( 95%  CI ) OR ( 95%  CI ) OR ( 95%  CI ) OR ( 95%  CI )
5+A*-C GCSEs including English and MathsNot CIN or CLARefRefRefRef
CIN (not CLA)0.11 (0.05 to 0.27)0.17 (0.07 to 0.40)0.15 (0.06 to 0.36)0.19 (0.08 to 0.46)
CLA0.14 (0.05 to 0.35)0.14 (0.06 to 0.36)0.25 (0.10 to 0.63)0.24 (0.09 to 0.63)
Coeff ( 95%  CI ) Coeff ( 95%  CI ) Coeff ( 95%  CI ) Coeff ( 95%  CI )
Capped percentage point scoreNot CIN or CLARefRefRefRef
CIN (not CLA)−22.1 (-26.7 to −17.5)−14.1 (−18.4 to −9.8)−18.4 (−22.6 to −14.1)−13.1 (−17.1 to −9.0)
CLA−28.4 (-33.5 to −23.3)−25.0 (−29.7 to −20.3)−21.9 (−26.6 to −17.2)−20.6 (−25.0 to −16.1)
  • *Adjusted for child age and sex.

  • †Adjusted for child age and sex, plus KS4 time-point variables (persistent school absence, in receipt of free school meals, school mobility, IDACI of residential neighbourhood).

  • ‡Adjusted for child age and sex, plus early life (maternal and SEP) variables (maternal age at delivery, education, partner status, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking, alcohol, depression, social support).

  • §Adjusted for child age and sex, plus KS4 and early life variables.

  • CIN, Children In Need; CLA, Children Looked-After; IDACI, Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index; KS4, Key Stage 4; SEP, socioeconomic position.