Table 1

Inclusion criteria

ParameterInclusion criteria
ConditionLoneliness
Publication datesFrom 1 January 2010 to 31 July 2019
Publication typesPrimary research published as journal articles
Study types/designs Primary research: RCTs/clinical trials, observational studies (cohort (before and after) and case–control studies)
Study subjects/participantsHumans—adults
Age18 years and above
GenderMale and female
InterventionsDigital technology interventions, including application of sensors, (social) robots, Internet, social media, (smart) phones, online tools, iPads, computers and tablets, world wide web, videos and online chats, groups, meetings, conferences and messages
Outcome(s)Loneliness
Follow-up timeThree months or more
LanguageEnglish
Research disciplinesPublic health and social care
Geographic location/country of studyAll countries
Settings/contextResidential dwellings including private residences and care homes/nursing homes