Table 2

Individual-level, balanced latrine use questions find significantly higher rates of open defecation than household level questions

Unit of observation:IndividualsHouseholdsDifference
(1)–(2)
Difference
(4)–(3)
Question typeIndividualHousehold (imputed)HouseholdIndividual (imputed)
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
1. Full sample
 Estimates0.324
(0.0288)
0.115
(0.0150)
0.122
(0.0158)
0.326
(0.0289)
0.209**
(0.163 to 0.254)
0.204**
(0.160 to 0.248)
 n (individuals or households)13 07013 07024312431
2. World Vision sample (in Bihar)
 Estimates0.153
(0.0361)
0.0184
(0.00796)
0.0256
(0.0112)
0.154
(0.0321)
0.134**
(0.0659 to 0.202)
0.128**
(0.0719 to 0.184)
 n (individuals or households)36753675629629
3. Coastal Salinity Prevention Cell sample (in Gujarat)
 Estimates0.192
(0.0358)
0.0848
(0.0212)
0.0721
(0.0174)
0.169
(0.0299)
0.108**
(0.0355 to 0.180)
0·0973**
(0.0417 to 0.153)
 n (individuals or households)33403340628628
4. Wateraid sample (in Karnataka)
 Estimates0.558
(0.0580)
0.184
(0.0365)
0.193
(0.0406)
0.550
(0.0575)
0.374**
(0.262 to 0.486)
0.358**
(0.247 to 0.468)
 n (individuals or households)31123112593593
5. Rural Welfare Institute sample (in Odisha)
 Estimates0.434
(0.0484)
0.204
(0.0284)
0.208
(0.0294)
0.450
(0.0463)
0.230**
(0.150 to 0.309)
0.242**
(0.170 to 0.313)
 n (individuals or households)29432943581581
6. Households with toilets only
 Estimates0.289
(0.0284)
0.0734
(0.0137)
0.0791
(0.0150)
0.291
(0.0287)
0.215**
(0.166 to 0.265)
0.211**
(0.162 to 0.261)
 n (individuals or households)12 36612 36622962296
7. Households that received help
 Estimates0.375
(0.0370)
0.0895
(0.0181)
0.0968
(0.0193)
0.378
(0.0368)
0.285**
(0.220 to 0.351)
0.281**
(0.217 to 0.346)
 n (individuals or households)7958795814701470
  • Cluster robust SEs, clustered by village, under means in columns 1 through 4. 95% CI under differences in columns 5 and 6. *P<0.05, **p<0.01. Household imputed refers to estimates of individual open defecation imputed from answers to the household-level question. Each individual in the household is given the same answer as the household-level answer. Individual imputed refers to estimates of household open defecation imputed from answers to the individual level questions. The household estimates are constructed by averaging open defecation among individuals in the household.

  • There are no differences that are significant at the .05 level, all are significant at the .01 level. That is why * is not used in the table.