Table 1

Randomisation balance: no significant differences in observed means between households assigned different latrine use questions

IndividualHouseholdDifference
(1)(2)(3)
No of households12151216−1
No of households by project
 World Vision (in Bihar)3163133
 Coastal Salinity Prevention Cell (in Gujarat)309319−10
 Wateraid (in Karnataka)2972961
 Rural Welfare Institute (in Odisha)2932885
Household members5.685 (0.0950)5.604 (0.101)0.0803 (−0.117 to 0.278)
Female0.491 (0.00485)0.489 (0.00490)0.00190 (−0.0115 to 0.0153)
Hindu0.967 (0.00882)0.960 (0.0102)0.00737 (−0.00383 to 0.0186)
Household head completed at least 8 years of schooling0.288 (0.0192)0.319 (0.0199)−0.0310 (−0.0675 to 0.00552)
Count of assets (max 13)8.202 (0.111)8.234 (0.117)−0.0327 (−0.196 to 0.130)
Has latrine0.943 (0.00795)0.946 (0.00781)−0.00251 (−0.0215 to 0.0165)
Got help from government or NGO to build toilet (given has toilet)0.625 (0.0304)0.656 (0.0274)−0.0309 (−0.0692 to 0.00747)
Pit size (cubic feet, given has toilet)179.0 (14.33)180.7 (14.27)1.666 (−25.94 to 22.61)
Toilet looks used (given has toilet)0.805 (0.0234)0.794 (0.0233)0.0103 (−0.0243 to 0.0450)
  • Cluster robust SEs, clustered by village, next to means in columns 1 and 2. 95% CI next to differences in column 3. *P<0.05, **p<0.01.

  • None of the differences are significant at the 0.05 or 0.01 level, which is why there are no * or ** in the table.