Table 1

Content of the COSMOS 1 and 2 levels

COSMOS 1COSMOS 2
Warm-upSame as in the Otago Exercise ProgramSame as in the Otago Exercise Program
Strengthening exercises
  • One-legged squat

  • One-legged sit to stand

  • Sideways squats

  • Jumping exercises

 Same strengthening exercises as in the COSMOS 1
 → Repetitions and series are updated and jumping exercises are extended and more demanding
Balance exercises
  • Same as in the D level of the Otago Exercise Program but stair climbing is replaced with squats

  • In addition, multitasking is incorporated into all exercises (eg, participants count repetitions or seconds backwards)

Same balance exercises as in the COSMOS 1 level, but all exercises are performed with eyes closed