Table 3

Age-standardised prevalence of nicotine dependence among current smokers by socioeconomic status (%)

CharacteristicsHan ethnic majorityNa Xi ethnic minorityLi Shu ethnic minorityDai ethnic minorityJing Po ethnic minorityAll
Age (years)
Level of education
 Primary (grade 1–6)42.441.533.642.532.838.6
 Middle (grade 7–9) or higher40.638.928.935.327.337.4
Level of annual household income
  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, the χ2 tests for independence were conducted for prevalence of nicotine dependence across socioeconomic status in all five studied ethnicities.