Table 3

Age-standardised prevalence of nicotine dependence among current smokers by socioeconomic status (%)

CharacteristicsHan ethnic majorityNa Xi ethnic minorityLi Shu ethnic minorityDai ethnic minorityJing Po ethnic minorityAll
Sex
 Male42.7**44.8**38.9*42.6**44.4**42.8**
 Female0.00.032.5**0.019.922.1
Age (years)
 35–4447.444.733.735.440.839.9
 45–5937.342.542.345.838.541.0
 ≥6044.745.336.943.135.040.8
Level of education
 Illiterate48.0*45.0*39.7*50.4*36.5*41.9*
 Primary (grade 1–6)42.441.533.642.532.838.6
 Middle (grade 7–9) or higher40.638.928.935.327.337.4
Level of annual household income
 Low34.243.235.137.738.340.0
 Medium35.642.842.236.236.039.2
 High44.5*42.737.637.437.642.8
All42.044.037.942.138.40.6
  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, the χ2 tests for independence were conducted for prevalence of nicotine dependence across socioeconomic status in all five studied ethnicities.