Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the matched population

Alcohol intoxication groupThyrotoxicosis groupMyocardial infarction groupSurgery groupInfection group>1 precipitant group
secondary precipitant:+
n=335

n=335
+
n=2507
−n=2507+
n=4773

n=4773
+
n=5229

n=5229
+
n=21 824

n=21 824
+
n=5055

n=5055
Demographics
 Age, median (IQR)59 (49–66)59 (49–66)73 (63–81)73 (63–81)77 (69–83)77 (69–83)75 (67–82)75 (67–82)79 (71–86)79 (71–86)76 (68–83)76 (68–83)
 Male, n (%)276 (82.4)276 (82.4)521 (20.8)521 (20.8)2705 (56.7)2705 (56.7)2724 (52.1)2724 (52.1)10 370 (47.5)10 370 (47.5)2676 (52.9)2676 (52.9)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Cancer16 (4.8)29 (8.7)288 (11.5)296 (11.8)586 (12.3)688 (14.4)1349 (25.8)882 (16.9)4341 (19.9)3571 (16.4)958 (19.0)807 (16.0)
 Chronic kidney disease11 (3.3)8 (2.4)61 (2.4)49 (2.0)289 (6.1)233 (4.7)352 (6.7)198 (3.8)1564 (7.2)748 (3.4)431 (8.5)212 (4.2)
 COPD*28 (8.4)23 (6.9)234 (9.3)221 (8.8)619 (13.0)565 (11.8)665 (12.7)520 (9.9)4696 (21.5)2093 (9.6)914 (18.1)519 (10.3)
 Diabetes26 (7.8)18 (5.4)189 (7.5)159 (6.3)575 (12.0)556 (11.6)503 (9.6)423 (8.1)2167 (9.9)1737 (8.0)498 (9.9)554 (11.0)
 Heart failure24 (7.2)18 (5.4)445 (17.8)388 (15.5)1660 (34.8)1076 (22.5)966 (18.5)851 (16.3)5109 (23.4)3709 (17.0)1574 (31.1)925 (18.3)
 Hypertension64 (19.1)78 (23.3)1309 (52.2)1249 (49.8)3290 (68.9)3204 (67.1)2484 (47.5)2695 (51.5)10 445 (47.9)11 475 (52.6)2694 (53.3)3007 (59.5)
 IHD†43 (12.8)53 (15.8)333 (13.3)455 (18.1)4773 (100)1604 (33.6)1753 (33.5)1332 (25.5)4696 (21.5)5069 (23.2)3072 (60.8)1423 (28.2)
 PAD‡7 (2.1)8 (2.4)78 (3.1)83 (3.3)375 (7.9)293 (6.1)468 (9.0)233 (4.5)1392 (6.4)932 (4.3)448 (8.9)269 (5.3)
 Prior bleeding event81 (24.2)42 (12.5)243 (9.7)249 (9.9)722 (15.1)715 (15.0)1267 (24.2)833 (15.9)4319 (19.8)3463 (15.9)1171 (23.2)811 (16.0)
 Prior thromboembolic event24 (7.2)24 (7.2)138 (5.5)183 (7.3)483 (10.1)698 (14.6)571 (10.9)570 (10.9)2651 (12.1)2278 (10.4)603 (11.9)635 (12.6)
Risk scores
 CHA2DS2-VASc§
 Median (IQR)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)4 (3–5)3 (3–4)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)4 (2–5)3 (2.4)
 0158 (47.2)158 (47.2)405 (16.2)405 (16.2)00391 (7.5)391 (7.5)1328 (6.1)1328 (6.1)269 (5.3)269 (5.3)
 1–2118 (35.2)118 (35.2)530 (3.0)530 (3.0)670 (14.0)670 (14.0)1406 (26.9)1406 (26.9)5148 (23.6)5148 (23.6)1005 (19.9)1005 (19.9)
 ≥359 (17.6)59 (17.6)1572 (62.7)1572 (62.7)4103 (86.0)4103 (86.0)3432 (65.6)3432 (65.6)15 348 (70.3)15 348 (70.3)3781 (74.8)3781 (74.8)
 HAS-BLED¶
 Median (IQR)2 (1–3)1 (0–2)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)3 (2–3)2 (2–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (2–3)2 (2–3)
 000355 (14.2)331 (13.2)134 (2.8)76 (1.6)289 (5.5)381 (7.3)1003 (4.6)1147 (5.2)208 (4.1)242 (4.8)
 1–2232 (69.3)155 (46.3)1460 (58.2)1440 (57.4)2552 (53.5)2863 (54.8)2863 (54.8)2935 (56.1)12 130 (55.6)12 129 (55.6)2422 (47.9)2638 (52.2)
 ≥3103 (30.8)52 (15.5)692 (27.6)736 (29.4)2145 (6.7)2077 (6.5)2077 (39.7)1913 (36.6)8691 (39.8)8548 (39.2)2425 (48.0)2175 (43.0)
Pharmacotherapy, n (%)
 OAC** therapy, n (%)33 (9.9)33 (9.9)1100 (43.9)1100 (43.9)1311 (27.5)1311 (27.5)1150 (22.0)1150 (22.0)5985 (27.4)5985 (27.4)1087 (21.5)1087 (21.5)
 Amiodarone ≤ 36 (1.8)33 (1.3)62 (2.5)359 (7.5)158 (3.3)443 (8.5)163 (3.1)617 (2.8)574 (2.6)418 (8.3)154 (3.0)
 Digoxin49 (14.6)29 (8.7)1000 (39.9)916 (36.5)1207 (25.3)1502 (31.5)1089 (20.8)1285 (24.6)7973 (36.5)6286 (28.8)1184 (23.4)1223 (24.2)
 Flecainide0 (0) ≤ 313 (0.5)29 (1.2)9 (0.2)32 (0.7)12 (0.2)52 (1.0)40 (0.2)156 (0.7)6 (0.1)27 (0.5)
  • *COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • †IHD, ischaemic heart disease.

  • ‡PAD, peripheral artery disease.

  • §CHA2DS2-VASc: Risk score for stroke: congestive heart failure/LV function, hypertension, age 65–74 years, age >74 years (two points), diabetes, stroke/transientischaemic attack/systemic embolism (two points), vascular disease, sex category (female).

  • ¶HAS-BLED: Risk score for bleeding: hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, history of stroke, history of bleeding, internationalnormalised ratio (left out due to missing data), age >65 years, drug consumption with antiplatelet agents/non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, alcohol abuse.

  • **OAC, oral anticoagulation.