Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the cohort of 30 467 new users of NOACs with NVAF and no other recent indication, stratified by dose of first NOAC prescription (standard or reduced dose)

Apixaban (n=10 834)Dabigatran (n=4381)Rivaroxaban (n=15 252)*
Standard dose
(n=7061; 65.2%)
Reduced dose
(n=3773; 34.8%)
Standard dose
(n=2018; 46.1%)
Reduced dose
(n=2363; 53.9%)
Standard dose
(n=12 091; 79.3%)
Reduced dose
(n=3081; 20.2%)
Sex
 Male4271 (60.5)1488 (39.4)1380 (68.4)1143 (48.4)7042 (58.2)1289 (41.8)
 Female2790 (39.5)2285 (60.6)638 (31.6)1220 (51.6)5049 (41.8)1792 (58.2)
Age (years)
 <60833 (11.8)63 (1.7)380 (18.8)73 (3.1)1233 (10.2)66 (2.1)
 60–691903 (27.0)177 (4.7)726 (36.0)202 (8.5)2696 (22.3)199 (6.5)
 70–792860 (40.5)676 (17.9)842 (41.7)699 (29.6)4400 (36.4)715 (23.2)
 ≥801465 (20.7)2857 (75.7)70 (3.5)1389 (58.8)3762 (31.1)2101 (68.2)
 Mean age (SD)71.4 (10.2)82.8 (7.8)67.2 (9.1)79.7 (8.5)73.6 (10.6)81.8 (8.5)
OAC naïve status
 Naïve3915 (55.4)1859 (49.3)909 (45.0)918 (38.8)5881 (48.6)1295 (42.0)
 Non-naïve3146 (44.6)1914 (50.7)1109 (55.0)1445 (61.2)6210 (51.4)1786 (58.0)
Year of first NOAC prescription
 2011–2013184 (2.6)107 (2.8)968 (48.0)1206 (51.0)1492 (12.3)479 (15.5)
 2014–20166877 (97.4)3666 (97.2)1050 (52.0)1157 (49.0)10 599 (87.7)2602 (84.5)
BMI
 10–19 (underweight)117 (1.7)331 (8.8)35 (1.7)139 (5.9)434 (3.6)212 (6.9)
 20–24 (healthy weight)1322 (18.7)1201 (31.8)343 (17.0)665 (28.1)2679 (22.2)875 (28.4)
 25–29 (overweight)2599 (36.8)1228 (32.5)735 (36.4)866 (36.6)4230 (35.0)1035 (33.6)
 ≥30 (obese)2766 (39.2)836 (22.2)809 (40.1)593 (25.1)4291 (35.5)847 (27.5)
 Unknown257 (3.6)177 (4.7)96 (4.8)100 (4.2)457 (3.8)112 (3.6)
Smoking
 Non-smoker2851 (40.4)1683 (44.6)784 (38.9)1015 (43.0)4876 (40.3)1282 (41.6)
 Smoker605 (8.6)221 (5.9)178 (8.8)126 (5.3)1015 (8.4)182 (5.9)
 Ex-smoker3598 (51.0)1865 (49.4)1052 (52.1)1221 (51.7)6190 (51.2)1617 (52.5)
 Unknown7 (0.1)4 (0.1)4 (0.2)1 (0.0)10 (0.1)0 (0.0)
Alcohol (units/week)
 None1356 (19.2)1129 (29.9)244 (12.1)526 (22.3)2244 (18.6)827 (26.8)
 1–93044 (43.1)1663 (44.1)857 (42.5)1128 (47.7)5501 (45.5)1448 (47.0)
 10–201316 (18.6)390 (10.3)422 (20.9)315 (13.3)1975 (16.3)316 (10.3)
 21–41470 (6.7)128 (3.4)219 (10.9)99 (4.2)821 (6.8)95 (3.1)
 ≥42227 (3.2)48 (1.3)92 (4.6)45 (1.9)354 (2.9)50 (1.6)
 Unknown648 (9.2)415 (11.0)184 (9.1)250 (10.6)1196 (9.9)345 (11.2)
History of CVD
 IHD1939 (27.5)1309 (34.7)416 (20.6)735 (31.1)3014 (24.9)1098 (35.6)
 Heart failure1080 (15.3)847 (22.4)268 (13.3)469 (19.8)1709 (14.1)791 (25.7)
 Hypertension4464 (63.2)2762 (73.2)1192 (59.1)1691 (71.6)7888 (65.2)2338 (75.9)
 Ischaemic stroke990 (14.0)774 (20.5)254 (12.6)435 (18.4)1567 (13.0)553 (17.9)
History of bleeding disorders
 Intracranial bleeding96 (1.4)108 (2.9)20 (1.0)51 (2.2)139 (1.1)52 (1.7)
 GI bleeding957 (13.6)573 (15.2)232 (11.5)349 (14.8)1609 (13.3)440 (14.3)
 Urogenital bleeding877 (12.4)517 (13.7)214 (10.6)309 (13.1)1629 (13.5)449 (14.6)
eGFR (CKD-EPI) /min/1.73 m2
 >505323 (75.4)1968 (52.2)1625 (80.5)1634 (69.1)9547 (79.0)1105 (35.9)
 30–50694 (9.8)1125 (29.8)110 (5.5)464 (19.6)892 (7.4)1475 (47.9)
 <3025 (0.4)255 (6.8)4 (0.2)16 (0.7)46 (0.4)223 (7.2)
 Unknown1019 (14.4)425 (11.3)279 (13.8)249 (10.5)1606 (13.3)278 (9.0)
Frailty index
 Fit1306 (18.5)191 (5.1)517 (25.6)201 (8.5)2120 (17.5)133 (4.3)
 Mild frailty2839 (40.2)933 (24.7)918 (45.5)706 (29.9)4624 (38.2)668 (21.7)
 Moderate frailty1978 (28.0)1395 (37.0)448 (22.2)833 (35.3)3522 (29.1)1182 (38.4)
 Severe frailty938 (13.3)1254 (33.2)135 (6.7)623 (26.4)1825 (15.1)1098 (35.6)
CHA2DS2VASc score
 042 (6.0)25 (0.7)220 (10.9)32 (1.4)608 (5.0)23 (0.7)
 1675 (9.6)52 (1.4)260 (12.9)76 (3.2)1107 (9.2)68 (2.2)
 21425 (20.2)252 (6.7)517 (25.6)222 (9.4)2182 (18.0)199 (6.5)
 31564 (22.1)623 (16.5)418 (20.7)475 (20.1)2681 (22.2)507 (16.5)
 ≥42971 (42.1)2821 (74.8)603 (29.9)1558 (65.9)5513 (45.6)2284 (74.1)
 Mean (SD)3.2 (1.8)4.6 (1.6)2.7 (1.7)4.2 (1.7)3.4 (1.8)4.6 (1.6)
CHADS score
 01127 (16.0)103 (2.7)480 (23.8)114 (4.8)1696 (14.0)103 (3.3)
 12119 (30.0)595 (15.8)681 (33.7)448 (19.0)3440 (28.5)452 (14.7)
 21929 (27.3)1259 (33.4)468 (23.2)786 (33.3)3596 (29.7)1044 (33.9)
 ≥31886 (26.7)1816 (48.1)389 (19.3)1015 (43.0)3359 (27.8)1482 (48.1)
 Mean (SD)1.8 (1.3)2.6 (1.3)1.5 (1.2)1.9 (1.3)1.9 (1.3)2.6 (1.3)
HAS-BLED score
 0814 (11.5)46 (1.2)312 (15.5)49 (2.1)1224 (10.1)54 (1.8)
 12437 (34.5)1163 (30.8)704 (34.9)721 (30.5)4460 (36.9)938 (30.4)
 22510 (35.5)1514 (40.1)699 (34.6)1005 (42.5)4467 (36.9)1305 (42.4)
 31089 (15.4)789 (20.9)263 (13.0)470 (19.9)1612 (13.3)596 (19.3)
 ≥4211 (3.0)261 (6.9)40 (2.0)118 (5.0)328 (2.7)188 (6.1)
 Mean (SD)1.6 (1.0)2.0 (1.0)1.6 (0.9)2.0 (0.9)1.6 (0.9)2.0 (0.9)
Medications
 Antiplatelets3250 (46.0)1844 (48.9)993 (49.2)1285 (54.4)5299 (43.8)1519 (49.3)
 Antiarrhythmics1074 (15.2)467 (12.4)403 (20.0)425 (18.0)1764 (14.6)403 (13.1)
 Antihypertensives6114 (86.6)3400 (90.1)1743 (86.4)2147 (90.9)10 591 (87.6)2860 (92.8)
  • *80 patients starting therapy on rivaroxaban were prescribed an initial daily dose higher than standard daily dose (>20 mg/day) and are not included in the table.

  • Prescription in the year before the first NOAC prescription.

  • BMI, body mass index; CKD-EPI, chronic kidney disease epidemiology; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GI, gastrointestinal; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; NOACs, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants; NVAF, non-valvular atrial fibrillation.