Table 1

Descriptive statistics

VariableHASUs*RATs†NRATsNAITs
No. of patients14 720112 33911 6936644
No. of stroke teams81473266
Percentages of patients (%)
 Age
  <50 years8.475.125.693.49
  50–59 years11.848.408.766.73
  60–69 years16.5516.0413.7214.83
  70–79 years25.3926.7725.1226.78
  80–89 years28.3132.1633.9836.14
  90–99 years9.0811.2112.3011.86
  >100 years0.350.300.440.18
 Gender
  Male51.7849.6848.1348.43
 Ethnicity
  White62.3592.6067.4891.59
  Asian9.991.918.712.23
  Black7.470.547.120.84
  Mixed0.920.210.790.18
  Ethnicity not known12.114.3210.314.29
  Ethnicity other7.160.425.580.87
 Social-economic deprivation
  Low deprivation31.5121.3630.6316.68
  Moderate deprivation29.9122.7928.4824.89
  High deprivation20.6224.6220.1525.81
  Very high deprivation14.9423.2415.1820.14
  Deprivation not known3.028.005.5612.48
 Stroke related co-morbidities
   Heart failure6.285.527.095.10
  Hypertension61.8353.5762.4654.21
  Atrial fibrillation17.8721.1221.6421.73
  Diabetes24.0019.3423.6719.37
  Previous stroke24.2127.5526.0525.98
 Disability
  Previous mRS=16.696.44
  Previous mRS=212.139.47
  Previous mRS=318.8521.22
  Previous mRS=440.5446.64
  Previous mRS=521.8016.23
 Stroke severity
  Mild stroke (NIHSS<5)44.3545.2230.4327.26
  Moderate stroke (NIHSS 5–14)35.9433.8543.6046.81
  Severe stroke (NIHSS 15–20)9.719.4313.6713.76
  Very severe (NIHSS>20)10.0011.5012.3112.18
 Stroke pathology
   Intracerebral haemorrhage11.4010.7013.1513.97
 Need for therapy
  Occupational therapy (n_OT)79.9379.7887.3595.15
  Physiotherapy (n_PT)83.1384.5888.9495.89
  Speech and language therapy (n_SALT)56.1145.2565.3962.73
  Psychological therapy (n_PSY)2.853.3214.8718.08
 Therapy service model
  Therapy available at weekends25.8225.4325.8025.93
  Patient transferred from a HASU0.100.1067.230.98
 Adverse events
  Patient suffered a urinary tract infection6.174.768.188.19
 Mortality
   Deceased4.9714.7912.014.38
  Transferred to another inpatient unit55.5610.2218.404.82
Mean (SD)
 LoS‡4.10 (3.67)13.93 (17.39)23.14 (23.90)37.37 (26.36)
 n_OT x OT average daily minutes19.95 (19.05)15.53 (17.17)17.85 (17.28)17.65 (14.94)
 n_PT x PT average daily minutes20.52 (16.68)15.29 (14.28)18.28 (15.97)19.46 (13.98)
 n_SALT x SALT average daily minutes10.63 (14.92)4.60 (8.65)7.61 (10.79)6.00 (9.51)
 n_PSY x PSY average daily minutes0.54 (3.86)0.10 (0.92)0.88 (4.06)0.55 (1.80)
 Order of team in patient pathway1.01 (0.13)1.03 (0.18)2.00 (0.47)2.11 (0.48)
  • *Units in Greater Manchester that have HASUs are not considered here.

  • †HASUs are essentially RATs, the descriptive statistics reported here for RATs exclude those that are also classified as HASUs.

  • ‡SSNAP records LoS in minutes. To ease interpretation, this record is reported in days by dividing SSNAP record by 1440 and rounding it to the closest integer number.

  • HASUs, hyper-acute stroke units; LoS, length of stay; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NAITs, Non-Acute Inpatient Teams; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; NRATs, Non-Routinely admitting Acute Teams; RATS, Routinely Admitting Teams; SSNAP, Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme.