Table 2

Estimated healthcare costs assuming the 2017 disease burden, changed disease burden as a result of increased bicycling, and estimated difference in healthcare costs

ExposureHealthcare costs with the current burden of diseaseHealthcare costs in the scenarioEstimated change in healthcare costs in the scenarioPercentual reduction in healthcare costsEstimated change in DALYs in the scenario
Physical activity€2 073 803 338€1 511 162 940€562 640 39827.1335 060
Air pollution change among the general population€46 283 254 008€46 228 719 501€54 534 5070.1221 975
Air pollution change among additional bicyclist€1 885 540 341€1 899 564 512€−14 024 171−0.74−7 287
Air pollution change among current bicyclists€874 825 533€874 566 906€258 6270.03131
Traffic injuries*€−88 244 441−8 210
Total€46 283 254 008€45 768 089 088€515 164 9201.0141 669
  • *Current costs related to traffic accidents were not available.

  • DALYs, disability-adjusted life years.