Table 1

General characteristics of the participants

CharacteristicsTotal participants
Parkinson’s disease (n, %)Control (n, %)P-value
Age (years old)1.000
 60–64388 (11.1)1552 (11.1)
 65–69660 (18.8)2640 (18.8)
 70–74903 (25.7)3612 (25.7)
 75–79835 (23.8)3340 (23.8)
 80–84498 (14.2)1992 (14.2)
 85+226 (6.4)904 (6.4)
Sex1.000
 Male1336 (38.1)5344 (38.1)
 Female2174 (61.9)8696 (61.9)
Income1.000
 1 (lowest)325 (9.3)1300 (9.3)
 2283 (8.1)1132 (8.1)
 3145 (4.1)580 (4.1)
 4154 (4.4)616 (4.4)
 5179 (5.1)716 (5.1)
 6190 (5.4)760 (5.4)
 7251 (7.2)1004 (7.2)
 8256 (7.3)1024 (7.3)
 9383 (10.9)1532 (10.9)
 10584 (16.6)2336 (16.6)
 11 (highest)760 (21.7)3040 (21.7)
Region of residence1.000
 Urban1467 (41.8)5868 (41.8)
 Rural2043 (58.2)8172 (58.2)
*CCI score<0.001†
 0325 (9.3)3049 (21.7)
 1132 (3.8)659 (4.7)
 2240 (6.8)1173 (8.4)
 ≥32813 (80.1)9159 (65.2)
Death1214 (34.6)2661 (19.0)<0.001†
  • *CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index (calculated without including pulmonary disease).

  • †χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test. Significance at p<0.05.