Table 1

PICO for study inclusion

Participants (P)Intervention (I)Comparison (C)Outcomes (O)Study typeLimits
Inclusion criteriaChildren 0–21 years of age and living in OoHC
  • School aged

  • Youth

  • Adolescents

  • Children

  • Infants

Any intervention (eg, treatment foster care; therapeutic residential care, sanctuary model, etc) delivered in an OoHC setting (eg, foster care, kinship care, residential care).No intervention; usual care; other interventions in OoHC;
children who remain with their biological/ foster families.
All health and psychosocial outcomes including but not limited to:
intellectual; behavioural; psychosocial; mental; suicidal ideation; psychological functioning; social skills; emotional; educational attainment; relationships; illicit drug use; smoking; alcohol; eating disorders.
Randomised controlled trials;
non-randomised or uncontrolled trials;
systematic reviews;
cohort studies;
English language only;
published in the last 10 years (2008–2018).
Exclusion criteriaAdults
>21 years of age
Editorial; commentary; narrative review; expert opinionLiterature published before 2008;
Languages other than English.
  • OoHC, out-of-home care; PICO, Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes.