Table 1

Framework for factors that could affect the implementation, impact, and scaling up of the school resources

DomainFactors and sourcesExplanation
TeachersSkills and competenciesTeacher’s education and experience in relation to the lessons being taught.
Understanding of the content being taughtTeacher’s understanding of the content.
Sufficient trainingThe extent to which the teachers received sufficient training in teaching the lessons
Self-efficacyTeacher’s confidence in teaching the lessons.
Fit to the teacher’s teaching style and context (eg, class size)Teachers’ comfort with the instructions or ability to adapt the instructions to their style and context.
AttitudesTeachers’ attitude towards new material (change), science, critical thinking and independent thinking by pupils (or their role as authorities in the classroom).
BeliefsTeachers’ beliefs about the teaching methods or content (eg, what treatments work or the concepts).
EmotionsTeachers’ emotions, such as stress or anxiety.
MotivationTeachers’ motivation to teach the material.
Positive learning environmentTeachers’ ability to create a positive learning environment; for example, encourage discussion, respond positively to questions, engage pupils.
PupilsLiteracyPupils’ ablity to read and understand the material.
AttendancePupils’ attendance or reasons for poor attendance (eg, long distance to school or inability to pay school fees).
Motivation to learnPupils’ motivation to learn the new material.
AttitudesPupils’ attitudes towards learning, towards authorities, towards science, towards critical thinking.
BeliefsPupils’ beliefs about the content (eg, what treatments work or the concepts).
Home environmentThe extent to which the pupil’s home environment encourages or discourages learning from the lessons.
Differentiated instructionThe extent to which pupils different learning needs are met.
Peer influence*Positive or negative attitudes of other pupils towards the material.
Teaching materialsValue of the materialThe extent to which the materials are valued by the teachers and pupils.
Compatability with the curriculumThe extent to which the material fits with the rest of the curriculum and how it is taught.
Appropriateness of the material*The extent to which the materials are relevant, challenging and engaging.
Credibility of the material*The textent to which the teachers and pupils perceive the material as credible.
School system and environmentTime constraintsThe extent to which there is sufficient time to accommodate introducing the new material.
Competing priorities*The extent to which other priorities for the school, teachers or pupils limit introducing the material (eg, preparing for exams).
School organisation and management*The extent to which the school provides an environment that supports adoption of new subjects, material and teaching methods.
School resources, particularly human resources*The extent to which the school has adequate resources to introduce the new materials (eg, human resources, student/teacher ratio, teacher workload, classroom space and classroom resources, such as blackboards and acoustics).
Attitudes and beliefs of head teacher and other teachers*Attitudes or beliefs of colleagues that influence the teacher’s interest in and ability to teach the material.
Parent and community involvement*Parents’ attitudes towards the new material or how things are done at the school.
Regulations*Regulations (eg, Ministry of Education policies and regulations) that affect introducing the new material.
Political environment *Elements of the political environment that affect introducing the new material; for example, authoritarianism or teacher strikes.
Bureaucracy*Bureaucratic arrangements that delay or limit introduction of the new materials, or facilitate introducing them.
Incentives and disincentivesIncentives or disincentives to introduce the new materials for teachers or head teachers.
  • *There were no key findings in relation to these factors or they were subsumed under another factor.