Table 2

Framework for potential adverse and beneficial effects

Potential adverse effectsCorresponding beneficial effects
Conflict between children and teachers due to children challenging their teachersMore open and engaging discussion of the basis of diverse claims or beliefs.
Conflict between children and parents due to children challenging their parentsBetter understanding between children and parents due to children conversing with their parents about what they are learning and parents feeling more engaged with what their children are learning and engagement of parents in discussions of health issues.
Distrust of health professionals or conflict between children and health professionals*Appropriate questioning of health professionals, better understanding and better healthcare.*
Conflict due to undermining of religious beliefs*Engagement of children and others in discussion about religious beliefs and science.*
Shortened enjoyment of the innocence of childhood*Increased enjoyment of school and childhood.
Nihilism or cynicism*Healthy scepticism and appreciation science.
Other potential beneficial effects
Impacts on teachersThe learning resources might improve the teachers’ understanding and ability to apply the concepts being taught to the children.
Impacts on parentsThe learning resources might indirectly improve parents’ understanding and ability to apply the concepts being taught to the children.
AssertivenessChildren asking more questions and not taking things for granted.
Improved decision-makingChildren making more thoughtful and informed decisions.
Nonviolent conflict resolution*Claims being presented and addressed in a friendly manner even when there is a disagreement about the claim, as illustrated in the resources.
Friendship formation*Friendly interactions between adults and children and among children, as illustrated in the resources.
Collaboration for problem solving*Collaboration for problem solving among the children, as illustrated in the resources.
Creativity*Thinking outside the box.
NumeracyImprovements in numeracy, reflecting what is learnt in lessons 6 and 7 (on fair comparisons and the play of chance).
  • *There were no key findings in relation to these factors.