Table 1

Criteria for the diagnosis of confirmed and probable cases of leptospirosis

CaseDefinition
ConfirmedClinical signs and symptoms consistent with leptospirosis with any one of the following criteria:
  1. Fourfold increase in MAT titre in acute and convalescent serum samples.

  2. MAT titre ≥1:400 in single or paired serum samples.

  3. Isolation of pathogenic Leptospira species from normally sterile sites.

  4. Pathogenic Leptospira species DNA detected by PCR.

Probable caseClinical signs and symptoms consistent with leptospirosis with any one of the following criteria:
  1. Presence of IgM antibodies by ELISA or dipstick.

  2. MAT titre ≥1:100 in single acute-phase serum sample (with no convalescent serum).

  • MAT, microscopic agglutination test.