Table 1

Schematic representation of data and biological sample collection among maternal-neonatal pairs at seven important timepoints

11–13 weeks24–28 weeks32–36 weeksBefore delivery24 hours postpartum42 days postpartum
Informed consent
Eligibility criteria
OS or placebo
Maternal questionnaires
Maternal faecal sampling
Maternal blood sampling
Neonatal Questionnaires
Neonatal faecal sampling
  • Maternal data will mainly be obtained from questionnaires or medical records and collected at the corresponding pregnancy weeks. Neonatal growth and development conditions will be evaluated by paediatricians and recorded in questionnaires.

  • Faecal samples and blood samples will be collected at the first five timepoints.

  • Faecal samples of both mothers and infants will be collected at the last two timepoints.

  • OS, oligosaccharide-sialic acid.