Table 2

Logistic regression analysis of the associations between hand grip strength (per 1 kg increase) and impaired status of health-related quality of life* (five dimensions of the EQ-5D)

Adjusted for ageFully adjusted†Selectively adjusted‡
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Men
 Mobility0.93 (0.89 to 0.97)0.0010.93 (0.88 to 0.98)0.0030.94 (0.90 to 0.99)0.011
 Self-care0.89 (0.82 to 0.95)0.0010.89 (0.80 to 0.97)0.0090.90 (0.84 to 0.98)0.011
 Usual activity0.92 (0.88 to 0.97)0.0010.93 (0.88 to 0.99)0.0150.93 (0.88 to 0.97)0.002
 Pain/discomfort0.94 (0.91 to 0.98)0.0020.94 (0.90 to 0.99)0.0170.94 (0.91 to 0.98)0.002
 Anxiety/depression0.95 (0.90 to 1.00)0.0340.98 (0.92 to 1.04)0.4290.96 (0.92 to 1.01)0.118
Women
 Mobility0.93 (0.89 to 0.98)0.0090.94 (0.89 to 1.01)0.0740.93 (0.88 to 0.99)0.018
 Self-care0.95 (0.86 to 1.05)0.2880.93 (0.82 to 1.06)0.2570.86 (0.77 to 0.95)0.003
 Usual activity0.91 (0.86 to 0.97)0.0030.93 (0.86 to 1.00)0.0450.91 (0.84 to 0.97)0.006
 Pain/discomfort0.94 (0.90 to 0.98)0.0030.94 (0.89 to 0.98)0.0100.93 (0.88 to 0.97)0.002
 Anxiety/depression0.95 (0.90 to 1.01)0.0770.97 (0.90 to 1.03)0.3150.97 (0.92 to 1.02)0.234
  • *Impaired status of health-related quality of life: some or extreme problem in EQ-5D domains.

  • †Adjusted for age, height, weight, education, household income, residential area, marital status, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and depression).

  • ‡Backward elimination method was used with significance set at p<0.05.

  • EQ-5D, EuroQoL-5 dimension.