Table 1

Characteristics of 1037 cancer survivors according to hand grip strength (HGS)

Total
(n=1037)
Normal HGS
(n=822)
Weak HGS*
(n=199)
P value
Age (years)62.2±12.460.3±12.170.1±10.3<0.001
Sex, n (%)0.711
 Men408 (39.3)332 (39.6)76 (38.2)
 Women629 (60.7)506 (60.4)123 (61.8)
Height (cm)160.4±8.2161.3±7.8156.3±8.6<0.001
Weight (kg)60.7±10.161.6±10.056.7±9.3<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)23.6±3.223.6±3.323.2±3.20.071
HGS (kg)
 Men36.3±7.738.7±6.225.9±3.7<0.001
 Women23.7±4.825.3±3.616.8±2.6<0.001
Education, n (%)<0.001
 <10 years498 (48.0)365 (43.8)133 (66.8)
 ≥10 years535 (51.6)469 (56.2)66 (33.2)
Income, n (%)<0.001
 First and second quartile (low)565 (54.5)419 (50.0)146 (73.4)
 Third and fourth quartile (high)471 (45.4)419 (50.0)52 (26.1)
Residence, n (%)0.005
 Urban722 (69.6)600 (71.6)122 (61.3)
 Rural315 (30.4)238 (28.4)77 (38.7)
Marital status, n (%)<0.001
 Live alone148 (14.3)98 (11.7)50 (25.1)
 Live with someone889 (85.7)740 (88.3)149 (74.9)
Former/current smoking, n (%)374 (36.1)308 (37.2)66 (33.5)0.339
Problem drinking†, n (%)371 (35.8)309 (42.1)62 (35.8)0.132
Inadequate physical activity‡, n (%)610 (58.8)464 (55.6)146 (74.1)<0.001
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Hypertension383 (36.9)289 (34.5)94 (47.2)0.001
 Diabetes161 (15.5)118 (14.1)43 (21.6)0.008
 Ischaemic heart diseases51 (4.9)42 (5.0)9 (4.5)0.774
 Stroke32 (3.1)17 (2.0)15 (7.5)<0.001
 Depression58 (5.6)45 (5.4)13 (6.5)0.521
Cancer site§, n (%)0.052
 Stomach194 (18.7)149 (17.8)45 (22.6)
 Colorectum134 (12.9)103 (12.3)31 (15.6)
 Liver31 (3.0)24 (2.9)7 (3.5)
 Breast¶134 (21.3)111 (22.9)23 (18.7)
 Cervix¶117 (18.6)95 (18.8)22 (17.9)
 Lung37 (3.6)31 (3.7)6 (3.0)
 Thyroid217 (20.9)195 (23.3)22 (11.1)
 Prostate¶42 (10.3)32 (9.6)10 (13.2)
 Other184 (17.7)145 (17.3)39 (19.6)
EQ-5D (moderate/severe problem), n (%)
 Mobility230 (22.2)142 (16.9)88 (44.2)<0.001
 Self-care42 (4.1)20 (2.4)22 (11.1)<0.001
 Usual activities135 (13.0)78 (9.3)57 (28.6)<0.001
 Pain/discomfort291 (28.1)205 (24.5)86 (43.2)<0.001
 Anxiety/depression127 (12.2)91 (10.9)36 (18.1)0.005
  • Data are given as mean±SD or number (%). P values were analysed by t-test or χ2 test.

  • *Defined as less than 29.7/19.7 kg (for men/women).

  • †Defined as consuming more than seven/five (for men/women) drinks on a single occasion at least two times a week.

  • ‡Defined as less than 150 min per week.

  • §Allows for patient to have more than one type of cancer.

  • ¶Percentage is limited to women for breast/cervical cancer and to men for prostate cancer.

  • BMI, body mass index; EQ-5D, EuroQoL-5 dimension.