Table 1

Sample characteristics

CharacteristicsControl group (regular care ward, n=193)Intervention group (special care ward, n=333)Total (N=526)P value of difference
Female, %59.161.660.60.637
Mean age (SD)83.1 (7.2)79.0 (11.9)80.5 (10.6)<0.001
Mean Barthel Index score (SD)29.9 (27.9)40.7 (30.4)36.7 (29.9)<0.001
Mild dementia, %7.89.68.90.580
Moderate dementia, %30.026.727.90.473
Severe dementia, %62.263.763.20.805
Mean length of stay, in days (SD)8.9 (7.5)9.7 (5.5)9.4 (6.3)0.002
Physical restraints (yes), %54.428.237.8<0.001
Psychotropic drug use (yes, as-needed), %25.914.118.40.001
Mean Pittsburgh Agitation Scale score (SD)3.9 (3.1)3.0 (3.2)3.3 (3.2)<0.001
Mean Charlson Comorbidity Index score (SD)3.2 (3.0)2.5 (2.0)2.8 (1.6)<0.001
Mean QUALIDEM total score (SD)40.7 (14.5)51.2 (17.2)47.3 (17.0)<0.001
  • Barthel Index: 0–100 (higher=better functioning); dementia (MMSE score): mild: 24–27, moderate: 17–23, severe: ≤16; Pittsburgh Agitation Scale: 0–16 (higher=stronger agitation and anxiety); Charlson Comorbidity Index: 0–9 (higher=more comorbidities); QUALIDEM: 0–100 (higher=better QoL).

  • MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination Test.