Table 1

Summary statistics of prevalence of concurrency* among opioid users and possible high-risk markers.

Characteristic (among opioid users)N (%)Prevalence of concurrency within characteristic. Percent (n)†Prevalence of concurrency among all opioid users. Percent (n=547 709)Percent of concurrent users (n)
Opioid users547 709 (100)17.6 (96 581)‡------
Gender
 Male255 293 (46.6)14.9 (37 955)6.939.3 (37 955)
 Female292 396 (53.4)20.0 (58 620)10.760.7 (58 620)
Average daily OME§
 <50468 863 (87.7)15.7 (73 411)13.780.2 (73 411)
 50-9051 033 (9.5)22.1 (11 287)2.112.3 (11 287)
 >9014 933 (2.8)46.2 (6899)1.37.5 (6899)
Duration of opioid use¶
 Chronic108 604 (19.8)47.1 (51 214)9.453.0 (51 214)
 Intermittent439 105 (80.2)10.3 (45 367)8.347.0 (45 367)
 ODT9139 (1.7)37.2 (3401)0.623.5 (3401)
 Not on ODT538 570 (98.3)17.3 (93 180)17.196.5 (93 180)
Postal code zone
 Rural85 666 (15.6)22.0 (18 809)3.419.5 (18 809)
 Urban462 043 (84.4)16.8 (77 772)14.280.5 (77 772)
Median household income (x1000)
 <50107 240 (19.6)23.1 (24 781)4.525.7 (24 781)
 50-75261 354 (47.2)17.9 (46 725)8.548.4 (46 725)
 75-100151 352 (27.6)14.2 (21 496)3.922.3 (21 496)
 100-12527 314 (5.0)12.9 (3514)0.63.6 (3514)
 >125448 (0.08)14.5 (65)0.010.07 (65)
# of unique dispensing pharmacies
 1426 557 (77.9)12.0 (51 413)9.453.2 (51 413)
 282 048 (15.0)31.1 (25 550)4.726.4 (25 550)
 323 155 (4.2)45.3 (10 482)1.911.0 (10 482)
 48260 (1.5)53.1 (4387)0.84.5 (4387)
 5+7689 (1.4)61.8 (4749)0.884.9 (4749)
# of unique prescribers
 1352 596 (64.4)7.1 (25 158)4.626.0 (25 158)
 2107 347 (19.6)25.9 (27 805)5.128.8 (27 805)
 342 656 (7.8)42.2 (17 990)3.318.6 (17 990)
 420 126 (3.7)50.5 (10 163)1.910.5 (10 163)
 5+24 984 (4.6)61.9 (15 465)2.816.0 (15 465)
Age
 0-1720 366 (3.7)1.5 (307)0.060.3 (307)
 18-65429 259 (78.4)16.3 (70 000)12.872.5 (70 000)
 >6598 083 (17.9)26.8 (26 274)4.827.2 (26 274)
Number of benzodiazepine DDD’s
 0-194 192 (71.3)67.4 (63 531)11.665.8 (63 531)
 1-230 423 (23.0)86.7 (26 370)4.827.3 (26 370)
 2-34761 (3.6)89.1 (4243)0.774.4 (4243)
 >32780 (2.1)87.7 (2437)0.442.5 (2437)
  • *Concurrency is defined as one or more days of overlap between an opioid and benzodiazepine receptor modulator.

  • †P value for X2 test of independence (difference between prevalence of concurrency between groups within characteristic) <0.001 for all characteristics.

  • ‡95% CI for prevalence of concurrency=17.5 to 17.7.

  • §Methadone and buprenorphine patients were excluded.

  • ¶Chronic opioid users were defined by having at least 90 days of cumulative opioid use or at least 10 opioid prescriptions in the year. This includes ODT patients.

  • DDD, daily defined doses; ODT, opioid dependence treatment; OME, oral morphine equivalent.