Table 1

Summary of outcome measures to be collected

MeasureUnitData collection method
Primary outcome measure
 Lumbar spine aBMDg/cm2 DXA (Medix DR, Medilink, Mauguio, France)
 Total hip aBMDg/cm2 DXA (Medix DR, Medilink, Mauguio, France)
Secondary outcome measures
Bone strength indices
 Lumbar spine BMCgDXA (Medix DR, Medilink, Mauguio, France)
 Total hip trabecular, cortical and total BMC; vBMD; volume; cortical thicknessg; g/cm3; cm3; mmProximal femur DXA scan, 3D hip software (DMS group, Mauguio, France)
 Femoral neck trabecular, cortical and total BMC; vBMD; volume; cortical thicknessg; g/cm3; cm3; mmProximal femur DXA scan, 3D hip software (DMS group, Mauguio, France)
 Whole body aBMD; BMCg/cm2; gDXA (Medix DR, Medilink, Mauguio, France)
 Ultradistal, 33% and total radius aBMD; BMCg/cm2; gDXA (Medix DR, Medilink, Mauguio, France)
Vertebral morphology
 Vertebral fractures, changes in vertebral morphologyDXA (Medix DR, Medilink, Mauguio, France)
Anthropometry
 HeightcmWall-mounted stadiometer (Seca 216, Seca, Hamburg, Germany)
 WeightkgDigital scale (Model MS 3200 Charder, Taichung City, Taiwan)
 Waist circumferencecmMeasuring tape
Body composition
 Whole body (lean mass; fat mass; body fat percentage)g; g; %DXA (Medix DR, Medilink, Mauguio, France)
Muscle strength
 Lower extremity isometric strengthkgLeg dynamometer (TTM Muscle Meter, Tokyo, Japan)
 Back extensor isometric strengthkgDynamometer (Lafayette Manual Muscle Testing Systems, Lafayette, USA)
 Hand grip isometric strengthkgDynamometer (JAMAR Plus, Patterson Medical, Sammons Preston, Bolingbrook, Illinois, USA)
Mobility
 Timed up-and-gosStop watch
 Five times sit-to-standsStop watch
 Gait speedm/sStop watch
Balance
 Functional reachcmFunctional reach board, ruler
 Tandem walksStop watch
Posture
 Relaxed and erect kyphosis°Inclinometer (Australasian Medical & Therapeutic Instruments, Brendale, Australia)
 Tragus to wall distancecmRuler
 Cobb angle of kyphosis°DXA (Medix, DR, Medilink, Mauguio, France)
Quality of life and physical activity enjoyment
 Mental and physical healthScoresSF-36 questionnaire
 Pelvic floor healthScoresPFDI-20 and PFIQ-7 questionnaire
 Osteoarthritis symptomsScoresWOMAC questionnaire
 Physical activity enjoymentScorePACES questionnaire
Safety and compliance
 Adverse eventsTraining diaries, investigator records
 ComplianceTraining diaries, instructor records
Exploratory outcome measures
 Incident number of fallsTraining diaries, investigator records
 Incident number of fracturesTraining diaries, investigator records
  • aBMD, areal bone mineral density; BMC, bone mineral content; DXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; PACES, Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale; PFDI-20, Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory; PFIQ-7, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire; SF-36, 36-item Short Form Health Survey; vBMD, volumetric bone mineral density; WOMAC, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities.