Table 4

Association between childhood urbanicity and late-adulthood depression incidence (logit, average marginal effects)

Full SampleMenMenWomenWomen
Age 0–15 living environment (omitted: rural area or village)
Big city0.007170.0181**0.01510.01440.002400.02080.0261
Suburbs or outskirts of a big city0.0268**0.0340***0.0319**0.00443−0.001180.0558***0.0586***
Large town0.005690.0162*0.01320.009440.005460.0212*0.0209
Small town−0.0006250.006830.008750.01180.01630.002530.00129
Current living environment (omitted: rural area or village)
Big city−0.00870−0.00923−0.00388
Suburbs or outskirts of a big city−0.002550.00866−0.0108
Large town0.00823−0.01070.0282*
Small town−0.0216**−0.0225*−0.0185
Additional childhood controls and contemporaneous incomeNoYesYesYesYesYesYes
Observations20 40020 40013 5489029615411 3717394
  • Constant was not reported.

  • All models contain controls for age–period–cohort and country fixed effects. Childhood controls consist of self-reported and self-recalled health status, a principal component score for deprivation, self-perceived and self-recalled numeracy and literacy at age 10, and self-reported parental alcohol abuse.

  • Column 1 displays the estimation results from regressing the EURO-D depression score on a set of living conditions when the respondent was aged 0–15. Column 2 adds various childhood and contemporaneous controls, and column 3 controls for current living conditions. Columns 4–7 repeat the specifications of columns 2 and 3 for men and women separately, respectively.

  • Asterisks indicate statistical significance.