Table 3

Association between childhood urbanicity and late-adulthood depression incidence (logit, ORs)

Full sampleMenMenWomenWomen
Age 0–15 living environment (omitted: rural area or village)
Big city1.0451.121**1.1001.1291.0211.1171.147
Suburbs or outskirts of a big city1.176**1.235***1.217**1.0390.9901.334***1.350***
Large town1.0361.109*1.0871.0841.0471.120*1.116
Small town0.9961.0451.0571.1061.1431.0141.007
Current living environment (omitted: rural area or village)
Big city0.9470.9270.980
Suburbs or outskirts of a big city0.9841.0710.945
Large town1.0520.9151.155*
Small town0.871**0.825*0.906
Additional childhood controls and contemporaneous incomeNoYesYesYesYesYesYes
Observations20 40020 40013 5489029615411 3717394
  • Constant was not reported.

  • All models contain controls for age–period–cohort and country fixed effects. Childhood controls consist of self-reported and self-recalled health status, a principal component score for deprivation, self-perceived and self-recalled numeracy and literacy at age 10, and self-reported parental alcohol abuse.

  • Column 1 displays the estimation results from regressing the EURO-D depression score on a set of living conditions when the respondent was aged 0–15. Column 2 adds various childhood and contemporaneous controls, and column 3 controls for current living conditions. Columns 4–7 repeat the specifications of columns 2 and 3 for men and women separately, respectively.

  • Asterisks indicate statistical significance.