TABLE 2

Association between childhood urbanicity and late-adulthood EURO-D score (ordinary least squares coefficients)

Dependent variableFull sampleMenMenWomenWomen
EURO-DEURO-DEURO-DEURO-DEURO-DEURO-DEURO-D
1234567
Age 0–15 living environment (omitted: rural area or village)
Big city0.04740.0978**0.117**0.104*0.07550.09370.151*
(0.0432)(0.0440)(0.0566)(0.0582)(0.0740)(0.0641)(0.0836)
Suburbs or outskirts of a big city0.117**0.153***0.156**0.05630.03550.223***0.253**
(0.0560)(0.0562)(0.0704)(0.0751)(0.0913)(0.0812)(0.105)
Large town0.02080.0760*0.0977*0.06530.08120.08340.124
(0.0433)(0.0436)(0.0558)(0.0583)(0.0726)(0.0631)(0.0826)
Small town−0.02750.01360.01530.08180.114*−0.0471−0.0791
(0.0412)(0.0410)(0.0518)(0.0552)(0.0683)(0.0590)(0.0759)
Male−0.887***−0.846***−0.864***
(0.0286)(0.0287)(0.0355)
Current living environment (omitted: rural area or village)
Big city−0.0850−0.0755−0.0634
(0.0603)(0.0800)(0.0883)
Suburbs or outskirts of a big city−0.05280.0267−0.115
(0.0588)(0.0759)(0.0879)
Large town0.0299−0.06700.136*
(0.0541)(0.0715)(0.0792)
Small town−0.0840−0.0868−0.0669
(0.0514)(0.0671)(0.0760)
Additional childhood controls and contemporaneous incomeNoYesYesYesYesYesYes
Observations20 40020 40013 5489029615411 3717394
  • Constant was not reported.

  • All models contain controls for age–period–cohort and country fixed effects. Childhood controls consist of self-reported and self-recalled health status, a principal component score for deprivation, self-perceived and self-recalled numeracy and literacy at age 10, and self-reported parental alcohol abuse.

  • Column 1 displays the estimation results from regressing the EURO-D depression score on a set of living conditions when the respondent was aged 0–15. Column 2 adds various childhood and contemporaneous controls, and column 3 controls for current living conditions. Columns 4–7 repeat the specifications of columns 2 and 3 for men and women separately, respectively.

  • Asterisks indicate statistical significance.