Association between childhood urbanicity and late-adulthood EURO-D score (ordinary least squares coefficients)

Dependent variableFull sampleMenMenWomenWomen
Age 0–15 living environment (omitted: rural area or village)
Big city0.04740.0978**0.117**0.104*0.07550.09370.151*
Suburbs or outskirts of a big city0.117**0.153***0.156**0.05630.03550.223***0.253**
Large town0.02080.0760*0.0977*0.06530.08120.08340.124
Small town−0.02750.01360.01530.08180.114*−0.0471−0.0791
Current living environment (omitted: rural area or village)
Big city−0.0850−0.0755−0.0634
Suburbs or outskirts of a big city−0.05280.0267−0.115
Large town0.0299−0.06700.136*
Small town−0.0840−0.0868−0.0669
Additional childhood controls and contemporaneous incomeNoYesYesYesYesYesYes
Observations20 40020 40013 5489029615411 3717394
  • Constant was not reported.

  • All models contain controls for age–period–cohort and country fixed effects. Childhood controls consist of self-reported and self-recalled health status, a principal component score for deprivation, self-perceived and self-recalled numeracy and literacy at age 10, and self-reported parental alcohol abuse.

  • Column 1 displays the estimation results from regressing the EURO-D depression score on a set of living conditions when the respondent was aged 0–15. Column 2 adds various childhood and contemporaneous controls, and column 3 controls for current living conditions. Columns 4–7 repeat the specifications of columns 2 and 3 for men and women separately, respectively.

  • Asterisks indicate statistical significance.