Table 2

Crude and multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios for early initiation of breastfeeding associated with caesarean versus vaginal births

CountryYear of DHSSample sizeUnadjusted PR
(95% CI)
Adjusted PR*
(95% CI)
Ethiopia201640210.50 (0.35 to 0.71)0.46 (0.32 to 0.66)
Namibia201320210.71 (0.62 to 0.81)0.71 (0.62 to 0.80)
Burkina Faso201057450.90 (0.68 to 1.18)0.77 (0.60 to 1.00)
Burundi2016–201751820.40 (0.34 to 0.48)0.40 (0.33 to 0.47)
Togo2013–201427070.60 (0.48 to 0.75)0.55 (0.45 to 0.68)
Benin2017–201853370.46 (0.37 to 0.58)0.47 (0.38 to 0.59)
Cameroon201146040.86 (0.68 to 1.09)0.82 (0.65 to 1.04)
Comoros201212280.50 (0.31 to 0.81)0.52 (0.33 to 0.83)
Congo Bra2011–201237540.42 (0.22 to 0.82)0.44 (0.23 to 0.85)
Congo DR2013–201471890.47 (0.36 to 0.60)0.44 (0.34 to 0.57)
Cote d'Ivoire2011–201230370.44 (0.24 to 0.81)0.48 (0.26 to 0.90)
Gabon201224520.27 (0.14 to 0.50)0.29 (0.15 to 0.56)
Senegal2010–201148090.59 (0.43 to 0.81)0.57 (0.42 to 0.78)
Gambia201334290.69 (0.43 to 1.11)0.77 (0.47 to 1.25)
Ghana201422810.47 (0.36 to 0.60)0.46 (0.35 to 0.59)
Guinea201227480.49 (0.16 to 1.50)0.47 (0.15 to 1.46)
Liberia201330010.43 (0.28 to 0.65)0.45 (0.30 to 0.69)
Mali2012–201338840.64 (0.50 to 0.82)0.60 (0.47 to 0.77)
Mozambique201145190.80 (0.70 to 0.91)0.79 (0.70 to 0.90)
Niger201246680.75 (0.54 to 1.03)0.58 (0.42 to 0.81)
Nigeria201312 1750.62 (0.47 to 0.81)0.49 (0.38 to 0.64)
Rwanda2014–201531270.50 (0.45 to 0.57)0.50 (0.45 to 0.57)
Sierra Leone201345690.70 (0.56 to 0.87)0.68 (0.56 to 0.84)
Zambia2014–201550130.58 (0.48 to 0.71)0.56 (0.47 to 0.68)
Chad2014–201564930.32 (0.13 to 0.75)0.35 (0.15 to 0.82)
Angola2015–201657380.52 (0.36 to 0.74)0.47 (0.34 to 0.67)
Tanzania2015–201641530.29 (0.21 to 0.41)0.24 (0.17 to 0.33)
Zimbabwe201523300.36 (0.26 to 0.51)0.35 (0.25 to 0.49)
Malawi2015–201665610.66 (0.58 to 0.74)0.67 (0.60 to 0.75)
Lesotho201413680.58 (0.45 to 0.75)0.59 (0.46 to 0.76)
Kenya201437620.49 (0.38 to 0.61)0.49 (0.39 to 0.61)
Uganda201658920.54 (0.46 to 0.63)0.49 (0.42 to 0.57)
South Africa201613580.85 (0.75 to 0.96)0.89 (0.78 to 1.00)
  • *Adjusted for pregnancy planning, birth weight, region of residence, sex of child, mother’s age at birth, mother’s education, number of antenatal visits, birth order, maternal tobacco use, place of delivery, types of residence (rural/urban), distance to health facility, mother’s occupation and household wealth.

  • Congo Bra, Congo-Brazzaville; Congo DR, Democratic Republic of the Congo; DHS, Demographic and Health Surveys; PR, prevalence ratio.