Table 4

Doctors’ roles12

RoleAdministrator and gatekeeperProfessionalPatient’s advocatePrivate individual
Accountable toSociety and health authorities.Medical quality, professional association and peers.Patient and next of kin.Self
(political views, moral values and personal interests).
Core moral norm(s)Act in accordance with laws and systemic requirements.
Take responsibility for population health and for fair distribution of resources.
Adhere to good practice and professional ethics.Ensure care is in line with patients’ views and interests.Do not act contrary to political or personal values and interests.