Table 3

Cumulative duration of exposure to antidepressants and risk of gestational diabetes

Exposure statusCases (n=20 905)Controls (n=209 048)OR (95% CI)
CrudeAdjusted*
No exposure 19 753 (94.5)200 461 (95.9)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Cumulative duration (d) in days among SSRI users
<90242 (1.2)2047 (0.9)1.20 (1.05 to 1.37)1.09 (0.94 to 1.27)
90≤d<18083 (0.4)765 (0.4)1.10 (0.88 to 1.38)0.98 (0.78 to 1.25)
180≤d210 (1.0)1674 (0.8)1.27 (1.10 to 1.47)1.11 (0.94 to 1.32)
Cumulative duration (d) in days among SNRI users
<9078 (0.4)718 (0.3)1.10 (0.88 to 1.39)1.02 (0.80 to 1.30)
90≤d<18029 (0.1)239 (0.1)1.23 (0.84 to 1.80)1.15 (0.78 to 1.70)
180≤d123 (0.6)707 (0.3)1.76 (1.45 to 2.13)1.58 (1.28 to 1.95)
Cumulative duration (d) in days among TCA users
<90108 (0.5)666 (0.3)1.64 (1.34 to 2.00)1.42 (1.15 to 1.75)
90≤d<18021 (0.1)89 (0.04)2.39 (1.49 to 3.83)1.96 (1.21 to 3.17)
180≤d14 (0.07)73 (0.03)1.94 (1.10 to 3.43)1.46 (0.82 to 2.61)
Cumulative duration (d) in days among users of other antidepressants
<9049 (0.2)440 (0.2)1.13 (0.84 to 1.52)0.99 (0.73 to 1.34)
90≤d<18012 (0.06)56 (0.03)2.16 (1.16 to 4.00)1.52 (0.81 to 2.86)
180≤d14 (0.07)103 (0.05)1.38 (0.79 to 2.41)1.10 (0.62 to 1.94)
Cumulative duration (d) in days among combined users (users of ≥2 antidepressants)
<9064 (0.3)399 (0.2)1.62 (1.24 to 2.10)1.31 (0.99 to 1.73)
90≤d<18042 (0.2)280 (0.1)1.52 (1.10 to 2.10)1.32 (0.94 to 1.84)
180≤d63 (0.3)331 (0.2)1.92 (1.47 to 2.50)1.56 (1.18 to 2.07)
  • *Adjusted for variables (a) on first day of gestation (maternal age, area of residence (urban vs rural), receipt of social assistance during pregnancy); (b) during 6 months before gestation (physician-based diagnoses or filled prescriptions of related medications for chronic comorbidities (hypertension, asthma and thyroid disorders); physician-based diagnoses of maternal diseases (depression, cardiovascular diseases and polycystic ovarian syndrome); medication use other than antidepressants and drugs for hypertension, asthma and thyroid disorders and visits to psychiatrists); history of antidepressant use and health service utilisation (visits to physicians and hospitalisations or emergency department visits).