Table 1

Social media use and sleep outcomes: criteria and prevalence

VariableCriteriaPrevalence (%)
Daily social media use
Low<1 hour43.822.833.7
Average1 to <3 hours32.131.131.6
High3 to <5 hours10.417.713.9
Very high5+ hours13.728.420.8
Sleep outcomes
Late sleep onset (school day)After 23:0025.526.526.0
Late sleep onset (free day)After midnight35.232.133.7
Late wake time (school day)After 08:
Late wake time (free day)After 11:0022.521.522.0
Long sleep onset latencyOver 30 min31.537.034.1
Trouble falling back asleep after nighttime awakeningAt least ‘a good bit of the time’16.925.721.1
  • Percentages account for survey design and weights. Criteria for late sleep onset and wake times defined as later than the median response category. Gender difference in daily social media use, late wake time (school day), long sleep onset latency and trouble falling back asleep after nighttime awakening p<0.001; gender difference in late sleep onset (free day) p<0.01. For a breakdown of social media use by other demographics (household income and ethnicity), see the online supplementary materials.