Table 2

Frequency of symptoms that differed between cases and controls in 6 months before diagnosis

Brain tumour statusPPV* (%)PLR* (95% CI)
CaseControl
(n=8184)(n=28 110)
Number with symptomsSensitivityNumber with symptomsSpecificity
Anxiety360(4.4)458(98.4)0.12.06 (1.86 to 2.28)
Appetite125(1.5)72(99.7)0.38.40 (7.06 to 10.0)
Ataxia624(7.6)351(98.8)0.49.42 (8.74 to 10.2)
Cognition323(3.9)99(99.6)0.718.4 (16.5 to 20.4)
Concentration11(0.1)3(100.0)0.24.49 (2.49 to 8.12)
Confusion474(5.8)92(99.7)1.436.9 (33.8 to 40.3)
Consciousness148(1.8)112(99.6)0.36.79 (5.79 to 7.95)
Cough852(10.4)2010(92.8)0.11.73 (1.62 to 1.84)
Depression438(5.4)699(97.5)0.11.84 (1.68 to 2.01)
Dizziness310(3.8)219(99.2)0.25.93 (2.53 to 6.61)
Falls318(3.9)343(98.8)0.25.73 (5.15 to 6.37)
Fatigue1005(12.3)699(97.5)0.25.72 (5.40 to 6.06)
Headache1163(14.2)518(98.2)0.25.70 (5.40 to 6.01)
Nausea604(7.4)353(98.7)0.26.22 (5.77 to 6.72)
Pain305(3.7)531(98.1)0.12.51 (2.25 to 2.80)
Seizure489(6.0)46(99.8)1.640.8 (37.5 to 44.5)
Sensation252(3.1)190(99.3)0.25.11 (4.53 to 5.76)
Sleep286(3.5)466(98.3)0.12.70 (2.41 to 3.03)
Speech382(4.7)87(99.7)0.819.7 (17.9 to 21.8)
Vertigo84(1.0)100(99.6)0.13.66 (2.96 to 4.53)
Visual327(4.0)163(99.4)0.512.3 (11.1 to 13.7)
Weakness303(3.7)37(99.9)1.539.4 (35.3 to 43.9)
Weight161(2.0)163(99.4)0.23.94 (3.38 to 4.60)
  • *Calculated after weighting for population sampling.

  • PLR, positive likelihood ratio; PPV, positive predictive value.