Table 1

Data sources and topics in establishing a CKD surveillance system in China

Data sourceIndications of CKDRisk factors for CKDProgression of CKD and outcomesMedical interventionsLimitations
Population census and registered health insurance databaseNADemographics, lifestyle risk factorsNANAOnly one record of measurement for each person.
Health checks database* Serum creatinine, dipstick test of proteinuriaPhysical examinations, laboratory tests, disease historySerum creatinine, dipstick test of proteinuriaTypes, doses and frequency of prescription1–2 years’ lag, no information on medications.
Disease surveillance and management databaseNANADiagnosis of CVD, Death certificatesTypes, doses and frequency of prescriptionNo information on laboratory tests.
Outpatient/inpatient EMR databaseSerum creatinine, urine albumin to creatinine ratio, ICD-10 codes for CKDPhysical examinations, laboratory tests, disease historyDiagnosis of comorbidities, CVD, ESKD and death certificatesTypes, doses and frequency of prescriptionCoverage limited to patients with outpatient/inpatient visits.
Charge and claims databaseNANANATypes, doses and frequency of prescriptionPrescription information may not be accurate.
  • *Health checks database refers to health checks for new rural cooperative medical scheme, health checks for elderly people and health checks for adults with hypertension and diabetes.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disaese; CVD, cardiovascular disease; EMR, electronic medical record; ESKD, end-stage kidney disease; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision; NA, not available.