Table 2

Mean absolute and relative daily energy intake according to NOVA food groups (Australian population aged 2+ years (NNPAS 2011–2012) (n = 12 153))

NOVA food groupsKcal% of total energy intake
Unprocessed or minimally processed foods675.435.4
 Red meat and poultry155.38.1
 Milk and plain yoghurt123.96.6
 Cereal grains and flours120.35.9
 Fruits*86.84.9
 Vegetables50.52.8
 Pasta45.42.3
 Nuts and seeds21.31.2
 Potatoes and other tubers and roots21.81.0
 Eggs19.21.0
 Fish15.20.8
 Legumes9.20.5
 Other†6.80.4
Processed culinary ingredients133.86.8
 Plant oils59.23.0
 Animal fats37.61.8
 Table sugar30.81.6
 Other‡6.20.3
Processed foods310.515.8
 Processed breads123.36.8
 Beer and wine80.13.6
 Cheese50.52.6
 Bacon and other salted, smoked or canned meat or fish22.61.2
 Vegetables and other plant foods preserved in brine8.60.5
 Other§25.51.2
Ultra-processed foods842.442.0
 Mass-produced packaged breads89.34.8
 Frozen and shelf stable ready meals¶70.83.7
 Fast foods dishes**75.83.5
 Pastries, buns and cakes72.63.3
 Breakfast cereals62.03.2
 Biscuits59.03.1
 Fruit drinks and iced teas58.73.0
 Confectionery58.62.9
 Sausage and other reconstituted meat products49.02.4
 Carbonated soft drinks44.02.1
 Milk-based drinks42.82.1
 Sauces, dressing and gravies36.31.8
 Salty snacks34.11.6
 Ice cream, ice pops and frozen yoghurts34.21.6
 Margarine and other spreads26.91.4
 Alcoholic distilled drinks12.20.5
 Other††16.80.9
 Total1968.0100.0
  • kcal = 4.18 kJ.

  • *Including freshly squeezed juices.

  • †Including meat from other animals, teas, coffees and dried spices.

  • ‡Including honey, maple syrup (100%) and vinegar.

  • §Including salted or sugared nuts, seeds and dried fruits.

  • ¶Including frozen lasagna, pizza and other pastas and meals, and instant soups and noodles.

  • **Including hamburger, pizza and French fries from fast food places.

  • ††Including ultra-processed cheese, baby food and baby formula.

  • NNPAS, National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.