Table 1

Summary of objectives and assessment measures

ObjectivesOutcome measures
PrimaryTest whether the virtual reality treatment leads to reduction in avoidance and distress in everyday situations.Oxford - behavioural assessment task (O-BAT).
Secondary1.Test clinical improvements by treatment type in activity levels, psychiatric symptoms, quality of life.Activity levels: Actigraphy, time-budget measure.
Psychiatric symptoms: Agoraphobia mobility inventory-avoidance, self-report O-BAT, Revised Green et al Paranoid Thoughts Scale, Paranoia Worries Questionnaire, PHQ-9, Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale.
Quality of life: EQ-5D-5L, ReQol, Questionnaire on the Progress of Recovery.
2.Determine the cost-effectiveness of the virtual reality treatment.Client Service Receipt Inventory.
3.Test mediation of treatment effects by changes in safety beliefs, threat cognitions, and defence (safety-seeking) behaviours.Cognition and Defence Behaviours Questionnaire and strength of safety beliefs, vulnerability belief and threat anticipation.
4.Test moderation of treatment effects (negative auditory hallucinations when outside, hopelessness, appearance concerns and threat cognitions).Hallucinations scale; Beck Hopelessness Scale; Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults; Cognition and Defence Behaviours Questionnaire.
5. Assess patient satisfaction with the VR therapy.Modified version of the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire.
  • VR, virtual reality.