Table 3

Multivariable associations with support for the proposed healthcare policies in the total sample (n=2062), and in current smokers (n=586)

1)Every smoker gets cessation treatment for free2)Training all healthcare professionals to advise smokers3)Cessation support as standard care for smokers (physical diseases)4)Cessation support as standard care for smokers (mental illness)
Smoking status
 Current smoker (ref.)1111
 Ex-smoker0.88 (0.67–1.16)1.43 (1.07–1.92)*1.37 (1.00–1.88)1.19 (0.89–1.58)
 Never-smoker0.88 (0.71–1.09)1.43 (1.14–1.79)**1.05 (0.83–1.33)1.39 (1.11–1.73)**
Age, 10 year units†1.01 (0.96–1.06)1.05 (1.00–1.11)1.06 (1.00–1.13)*1.05 (1.00–1.11)
Sex
 Female (ref.)1111
 Male0.80 (0.66–0.97)*0.83 (0.68–1.01)0.74 (0.60–0.91)**0.91 (0.75–1.10)
Education‡
 High school equiv. (ref.)1111
 Adv. tech. college equiv.1.50 (1.00–2.24)*1.16 (0.76–1.77)1.21 (0.77–1.92)1.41 (0.93–2.13)
 Secondary school equiv.1.34 (1.05–1.72)*1.15 (0.88–1.49)1.02 (0.77–1.34)1.06 (0.82–1.37)
 Junior high school equiv.1.36 (1.03–1.79)*0.99 (0.75–1.32)0.93 (0.69–1.26)1.23 (0.93–1.63)
 No qualification1.07 (0.49–2.34)1.68 (0.69–4.11)1.19 (0.49–2.91)0.86 (0.39–1.91)
Household income
 €>5000/per month (ref.)1111
 €4000–5000/per month0.99 (0.60–1.64)0.70 (0.42–1.19)1.23 (0.69–2.19)1.32 (0.79–2.21)
 €3000–4000/per month1.04 (0.69–1.58)0.88 (0.56–1.36)1.03 (0.65–1.165)1.59 (1.04–2.43)*
 €2000–3000/per month0.92 (0.62–1.38)0.87 (0.57–1.33)0.84 (0.54–1.32)1.39 (0.92–2.10)
 €1000–2000/per month1.02 (0.68–1.53)0.91 (0.59–1.40)1.05 (0.67–1.64)1.56 (1.03–2.37)*
 < €1,000/per month1.53 (0.97–2.43)1.10 (0.67–1.78)1.22 (0.73–2.04)2.07 (1.29–3.31)**
Current smokers only (n=586)
 Cigarettes smoked/day, number1.00 (1.00–1.00)1.00 (1.00–1.00)1.00 (1.00–1.00)1.00 (1.00–1.00)
Quit attempt last year (yes/no)
 Yes, attempt to quit (ref.)1111
 No, attempt to quit0.80 (0.51–1.26)0.70 (0.44–1.11)0.91 (0.56–1.48)0.84 (0.54–1.32)
Motivation to stop smoking (MRS)3§1.00 (0.87–1.14)1.20 (1.04–1.40)*1.14 (0.98–1.33)0.95 (0.83–1.08)
  • Data are presented as adjusted OR (95% CI around OR). *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • †Continuous variable: age units are based on DEBRA study participation eligibility (14 years and older): 14–23; 24–33; 34–43; 44–53; 54–63; 64–73; 74–83; 84–93; 94–103.

  • ‡German equivalents to education levels listed in table from highest to lowest: high school equivalent = “Allgemeine Hochschulreife,” advanced technical college equivalent = “Fachhochschulreife,” secondary school equivalent = “Realschulabschluss,” junior high school equivalent = “Hauptschulabschluss”.

  • §Continuous variable (MRS: increasing from 1 “don’t want to top” to 7 “really want to stop, intend to in the next month”).

  • Ref., reference group.