Table 2

Summary of municipal data used as an instrument variable and covariates (n=1695)

25th percentileMedian75th percentile
Proportion of population aged over 650.2230.2720.322
Crude death rate of those aged over 65 years†0.0300.0350.039
Proportion of solitary elderly household0.0740.0960.130
Proportion of elderly couple household0.0960.1180.148
Annual income per capita‡24.72826.77029.821
No of beds in hospitals§0.0100.0370.062
No of clinics¶1.9062.5573.226
No of home care support clinics¶00.2670.519
No of home-visit nursing stations¶00.1320.229
No of beds in nursing homes§0.0210.0300.040
Full-time translated no of certified home care workers§**0.0150.0260.039
  • *Per 1000 people.

  • †Calculated by dividing the number of deaths of those over 65 by the number of people aged 65 or over.

  • ‡Per 100 000 JPY (about €750, US$1000).

  • §Per population aged over 65 years.

  • ¶Per 1000 population aged over 65 years.

  • **Calculated by adding the number of full-time home care workers, full-time converted number of concurrent home care workers and full-time converted number of part-time home care workers for each municipality.