Table 1

Rates and rate ratios of study outcomes of patients with and without gout

No. with outcomePatient-yearsIR (95% CI)Unadjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)P value
Primary outcome
Advanced CKD*
Patients without gout10 1872 498 4984.08 (4.00 to 4.16)RefRef<0.001
Patients with gout3452404 0358.54 (8.26 to 8.83)2.00 (1.92 to 2.07)1.29 (1.23 to 1.35)
Components of primary outcome
End-stage kidney disease†
Patients without gout7612 520 7260.30 (0.28 to 0.32)RefRef<0.001
Patients with gout563411 7991.37 (1.26 to 1.48)4.72 (4.06 to 5.49)2.13 (1.73 to 2.61)
eGFR <10 mL/min/1.73 m²‡
Patients without gout17941 945 8680.92 (0.88 to 0.97)RefRef<0.001
Patients with gout852389 9362.18 (2.04 to 2.34)2.06 (1.87 to 2.27)1.45 (1.30 to 1.61)
Doubling of serum creatinine§
Patients without gout8049940 1108.56 (8.38 to 8.75)RefRef<0.001
Patients with gout2699231 58811.65 (11.22 to 12.10)1.34 (1.28 to 1.40)1.13 (1.08 to 1.19)
Death associated with CKD¶
Patients without gout15532 522 1660.62 (0.59 to 0.65)RefRef0.078
Patients with gout563411 7991.32 (1.21 to 1.44)1.63 (1.46 to 1.83)1.14 (0.99 to 1.31)
  • *Fully adjusted model for advanced CKD comprised N=64 726 patients with gout and N=489 842 without and included the following covariates measured at index date: Townsend score of social deprivation, smoking status,diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, early-stage and moderate-stage CKD, generalrenal disease, acute kidney injury, liver failure/disease, obesity, drug addiction, Charlson Comorbidity Index, non-steroidalanti-inflammatory drugs, oral corticosteroid, ACE inhibitor, thiazide, other diuretics, statin and aspirin use.

  • †Fully adjusted model for end-stage renal disease comprised N=68 804 patients with gout and N=554 286 without and included the following covariates measured at index date: Townsend score of social deprivation, hypertension, early-stage CKD, general renal disease, Charlson Comorbidity Index, ACE inhibitor and other diuretic use.

  • ‡Fully adjusted model for eGFR<10 mL/min/1.73m² comprised N=61218 patients with gout and N=340 470 without and included the following covariates measured at index date: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, early-stage CKD, general renal disease, Charlson Comorbidity Index, other diuretics and statin use.

  • §Fully adjusted model ford oubling of serum creatinine comprised N=43 389 patients with gout and N=207 594 without and included the following covariates measured at index date: Townsend score of social deprivation, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, heart failure, early-stage and moderate-stage CKD, general renal disease, acute kidney injury, liver failure/disease, drug addiction, Charlson Comorbidity Index, oral corticosteroid, angiotensin receptor blocker, ACE inhibitor, other diuretic, statin and aspirin use.

  • ¶Fully adjusted model for deathcaused by CKD comprised N=64 726 patients with gout and N=489 842 ithoutand included the following covariates measured at index date: Townsend score of social deprivation, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hyperlipidaemia, angina, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, early-stage CKD, general renal disease, acute kidney injury, excess alcohol use, Charlson Comorbidity Index, ACE inhibitor, thiazide, other diuretics and aspirin use.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease;IR, incidence rate; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.