Table 4

Linear regression analysis for the association with initiating insulin in an 80-year-old patient with comorbidities (vignette 2); beta (β) expresses the difference in HbA1c level in mmol/mol

 Model 1: univariable linear regression Model 2: multivariable linear regression (country not in the model) Model 3: multivariable linear regression (country added to the model) β 95% CI P value β 95% CI P value β 95% CI P value Age physician (per year increase) −0.01 −0.11 to 0.09 0.896 0.01 −0.09 to 0.11 0.828 0.02 −0.09 to 0.12 0.766 Secondary care (vs primary care) 2.00 −0.78 to 4.78 0.159 3.02 −0.93 to 6.96 0.134 3.04 −1.42 to 7.49 0.182 Number of patients seen per week (per patient increase) 0.00 −0.01 to 0.01 0.433 0.00 −0.01 to 0.01 0.542 0.00 −0.02 to 0.01 0.752 Percentage patients with T2DM seen of all patients (per one % increase) 0.01 −0.03 to 0.05 0.634 −0.03 −0.08 to 0.03 0.402 −0.03 −0.09 to 0.03 0.371 Target HbA1c in guideline according to physician (per mmol/mol increase) 0.11 −0.18 to 0.40 0.450 0.10 −0.20 to 0.40 0.507 0.12 −0.20 to 0.45 0.443 Guideline unawareness 0.71 −3.57 to 5.00 0.740 0.34 −4.25 to 4.93 0.884 0.31 −4.31 to 4.93 0.893 Physicians’ attitude towards guidelines (per one point increase*) −0.06 −0.16 to 0.03 0.198 −0.08 −0.19 to 0.02 0.126 −0.07 −0.18 to 0.04 0.231 Education by physician 0.08 −1.86 to 2.02 0.953 0.21 −1.80 to 2.22 0.840 0.00 −2.08 to 2.07 0.998 Nurse / diabetes educator in care centre 0.83 −1.19 to 2.85 0.420 0.72 −1.35 to 2.78 0.497 0.39 −2.92 to 3.70 0.817 Belgium NA NA 0.95 −3.56 to 5.46 0.679 France NA NA 0.01 −4.50 to 4.51 0.998 Germany NA NA 0.85 −4.82 to 6.51 0.768 Ireland NA NA 2.54 −3.44 to 8.51 0.402 Italy NA NA −3.00 −8.20 to 2.21 0.259 Sweden NA NA 1.08 −2.65 to 4.82 0.570 UK NA NA 1.31 −2.47 to 5.09 0.496
• Reference categories: guideline unawareness=aware of guidelines; education by physician=no; nurse / diabetes educator in care centre=no.

• *on a 17 to 85 scale.

• β, regression coefficient;HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; NA, not applicable; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.