Table 4

Linear regression analysis for the association with initiating insulin in an 80-year-old patient with comorbidities (vignette 2); beta (β) expresses the difference in HbA1c level in mmol/mol

Model 1: univariable linear regressionModel 2: multivariable linear regression (country not in the model)Model 3: multivariable linear regression (country added to the model)
β95% CIP valueβ95% CIP valueβ95% CIP value
Age physician (per year increase)−0.01−0.11 to 0.090.8960.01−0.09 to 0.110.8280.02−0.09 to 0.120.766
Secondary care (vs primary care)2.00−0.78 to 4.780.1593.02−0.93 to 6.960.1343.04−1.42 to 7.490.182
Number of patients seen per week (per patient increase)0.00−0.01 to 0.010.4330.00−0.01 to 0.010.5420.00−0.02 to 0.010.752
Percentage patients with T2DM seen of all patients (per one % increase)0.01−0.03 to 0.050.634−0.03−0.08 to 0.030.402−0.03−0.09 to 0.030.371
Target HbA1c in guideline according to physician (per mmol/mol increase)0.11−0.18 to 0.400.4500.10−0.20 to 0.400.5070.12−0.20 to 0.450.443
Guideline unawareness0.71−3.57 to 5.000.7400.34−4.25 to 4.930.8840.31−4.31 to 4.930.893
Physicians’ attitude towards guidelines (per one point increase*)−0.06−0.16 to 0.030.198−0.08−0.19 to 0.020.126−0.07−0.18 to 0.040.231
Education by physician0.08−1.86 to 2.020.9530.21−1.80 to 2.220.8400.00−2.08 to 2.070.998
Nurse / diabetes educator in care centre0.83−1.19 to 2.850.4200.72−1.35 to 2.780.4970.39−2.92 to 3.700.817
BelgiumNANA0.95−3.56 to 5.460.679
FranceNANA0.01−4.50 to 4.510.998
GermanyNANA0.85−4.82 to 6.510.768
IrelandNANA2.54−3.44 to 8.510.402
ItalyNANA−3.00−8.20 to 2.210.259
SwedenNANA1.08−2.65 to 4.820.570
UKNANA1.31−2.47 to 5.090.496
  • Reference categories: guideline unawareness=aware of guidelines; education by physician=no; nurse / diabetes educator in care centre=no.

  • *on a 17 to 85 scale.

  • β, regression coefficient;HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; NA, not applicable; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.