Table 3

Linear regression analysis for the association with initiating insulin in a 50-year-old patient without comorbidities (vignette 1); beta (β) expresses the difference in HbA1c level in mmol/mol

Model 1: univariable linear regressionModel 2: multivariable linear regression (country not in the model)Model 3: multivariable linear regression (country added to the model)
β95% CIP valueβ95% CIP valueβ95% CIP value
Age physician (per year increase)0.02−0.08 to 0.120.7240.00−0.10 to 0.100.9530.01−0.09 to 0.110.783
Secondary care (vs primary care)−0.99−3.68 to 1.700.469−0.50−4.31 to 3.320.799−1.72−5.89 to 2.440.416
Number of patients seen per week (per patient increase)0.00−0.01 to 0.010.6430.00−0.01 to 0.010.695−0.01−0.02 to 0.010.508
Percentage patients with T2DM seen of all patients (per one % increase)0.00−0.04 to 0.030.8180.01−0.05 to 0.060.7840.00−0.05 to 0.060.942
Target HbA1c in guideline according to physician (per mmol/mol increase)−1.48−0.41 to 0.120.273−0.14−0.42 to 0.140.338−0.09−0.38 to 0.200.533
Guideline unawareness2.77−1.46 to 7.000.1961.21−3.21 to 5.640.5870.49−4.03 to 5.010.830
Physicians’ attitude towards guidelines (per one point* increase)−0.14−0.25 to −0.030.011−0.12−0.23 to −0.010.027−0.08−0.19 to 0.030.156
Education by physician−0.90−2.69 to 0.890.325−0.97−2.82 to 0.880.303−1.40−3.29 to 0.490.147
Nurse / diabetes educator in care centre−2.05−4.12 to 0.010.051−1.79−3.93 to 0.340.0992.63−1.30 to 6.560.185
BelgiumNANA8.633.71 to 13.550.001
FranceNANA6.952.43 to 11.460.003
GermanyNANA4.76−0.19 to 8.560.059
IrelandNANA3.29−1.97 to 8.560.218
ItalyNANA4.20−0.71 to 9.110.094
SwedenNANA1.30−2.25 to 4.850.472
UKNANA4.450.93 to 7.970.013
  • Reference categories: guideline unawareness=aware of guidelines; education by physician=no; nurse / diabetes educator in care centre=no; countries=the Netherlands.

  • *on a 17 to 85 scale.

  • β, regression coefficient;HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; NA, not applicable; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.