Table 3

Linear regression analysis for the association with initiating insulin in a 50-year-old patient without comorbidities (vignette 1); beta (β) expresses the difference in HbA1c level in mmol/mol

 Model 1: univariable linear regression Model 2: multivariable linear regression (country not in the model) Model 3: multivariable linear regression (country added to the model) β 95% CI P value β 95% CI P value β 95% CI P value Age physician (per year increase) 0.02 −0.08 to 0.12 0.724 0.00 −0.10 to 0.10 0.953 0.01 −0.09 to 0.11 0.783 Secondary care (vs primary care) −0.99 −3.68 to 1.70 0.469 −0.50 −4.31 to 3.32 0.799 −1.72 −5.89 to 2.44 0.416 Number of patients seen per week (per patient increase) 0.00 −0.01 to 0.01 0.643 0.00 −0.01 to 0.01 0.695 −0.01 −0.02 to 0.01 0.508 Percentage patients with T2DM seen of all patients (per one % increase) 0.00 −0.04 to 0.03 0.818 0.01 −0.05 to 0.06 0.784 0.00 −0.05 to 0.06 0.942 Target HbA1c in guideline according to physician (per mmol/mol increase) −1.48 −0.41 to 0.12 0.273 −0.14 −0.42 to 0.14 0.338 −0.09 −0.38 to 0.20 0.533 Guideline unawareness 2.77 −1.46 to 7.00 0.196 1.21 −3.21 to 5.64 0.587 0.49 −4.03 to 5.01 0.830 Physicians’ attitude towards guidelines (per one point* increase) −0.14 −0.25 to −0.03 0.011 −0.12 −0.23 to −0.01 0.027 −0.08 −0.19 to 0.03 0.156 Education by physician −0.90 −2.69 to 0.89 0.325 −0.97 −2.82 to 0.88 0.303 −1.40 −3.29 to 0.49 0.147 Nurse / diabetes educator in care centre −2.05 −4.12 to 0.01 0.051 −1.79 −3.93 to 0.34 0.099 2.63 −1.30 to 6.56 0.185 Belgium NA NA 8.63 3.71 to 13.55 0.001 France NA NA 6.95 2.43 to 11.46 0.003 Germany NA NA 4.76 −0.19 to 8.56 0.059 Ireland NA NA 3.29 −1.97 to 8.56 0.218 Italy NA NA 4.20 −0.71 to 9.11 0.094 Sweden NA NA 1.30 −2.25 to 4.85 0.472 UK NA NA 4.45 0.93 to 7.97 0.013
• Reference categories: guideline unawareness=aware of guidelines; education by physician=no; nurse / diabetes educator in care centre=no; countries=the Netherlands.

• *on a 17 to 85 scale.

• β, regression coefficient;HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; NA, not applicable; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.