Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants

Japan (JAGES) (n=13 123)Finland (pooled FPS and HeSSup studies) (n=10 353)P value
N or mean% or SDN or mean% or SD
Parental divorce3362.69589.3<0.01*
Fear of a family member11959.1134813.0<0.01*
Childhood poverty613546.8301329.1<0.01*
Any adverse childhood experience656150.0385237.2<0.01*
Total number of adverse childhood experiences
 0656250.0650162.8<0.01*
 1551742.0263425.4
 29837.59699.4
 3610.52492.4
Age69.52.864.42.9<0.01
Sex
 Male621447.4320130.9<0.01*
 Female690952.7715269.1
SRH
 Poor/fair177013.5378036.5<0.01*
Cancer4603.53883.8<0.32*
 Missing540.5
Heart disease or stroke135310.34664.5<0.01*
 Missing540.5
Diabetes mellitus173813.27146.9<0.01*
 Missing540.5
BMI mean23.03.126.74.4<0.01
Smoking
 Never922170.3697367.4<0.01*
 Former222116.9244423.6
 Current168112.89369.0
Education
 <9 years439533.5186818.0<0.01*
 10–12 years547641.7316830.6
 12+ years310323.7523450.6
 Missing1491.1830.8
Marital status
 Single3262.55745.5<0.01*
 Divorced5354.1141413.7
 Widowed160612.27417.2
 Married/cohabit10 44179.6755773.0
 Missing2151.6670.7
Working status
 Not working860465.6309229.9<0.01*
 Working406231.0723069.8
 Missing4573.5310.3
  • *Chi-squared test.

  • t-test.

  • BMI, body mass index; FPS, Finnish Public Sector; HeSSup, Health and Social Support; JAGES, Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study; SRH, self-rated health.