Table 1

Summary of variable names, symbols and interpretation

Name of variableSymbolVariable description
Research impactsnciSum of normalised citations received by all articles published by all organisations in country i across the years
Innovation indexEmbedded ImageEvidence-based innovative value of all articles published by country i
Average contribution to publication of international collaboratorsEmbedded ImageExtent to which international collaboration contributed on average to an article published by country i
Average no of publications per domestic organisationEmbedded ImageRatio between total no of articles published by country i and total no of unique organisations in country i
EfficiencyEmbedded ImageExtent to which country i’s connections to other countries are non-redundant
Geographical entropyEmbedded ImageGeographical dispersion of country is collaborations (ie, diversity of the geographical locations of country i’s collaborators)