Table 1

Baseline characteristics (at time of index hospitalisation) and processes of care outcomes for each primary diagnosis across weekend and weekday index hospitalisations

VariableSTEMINSTEMIHFStroke
WeekendWeekdayWeekendWeekdayWeekendWeekdayWeekendWeekday
Weighted n187 493472 413379 4261 041 174722 2042 305 495667 8331 906 335
Re admitted within 30 days, n (%)20 256 (10.8)52 139 (11.0)57 559 (15.2)157 347 (15.1)170 220 (23.6)525 888 (22.8)73 279 (11.0)206 932 (10.9)
Patient characteristics
Age, mean (SD), years62.2 (13.62)63.0 (13.68)68.7 (14.10)68.6 (14.03)72.6 (14.30)72.1 (14.34)70.3 (14.49)69.9 (14.53)
Female, n (%)56 302 (30.0)147 699 (31.3)159 840 (42.1)433 283 (41.6)365 208 (50.6)1 137 837 (49.4)359 732 (53.9)1 018 623 (53.4)
Primary expected payer, n (%)
 Medicare78 304 (41.8)210 349 (44.5)238 633 (62.9)654 200 (62.8)555 375 (76.9)1 748 523 (75.8)444 426 (66.6)1 254 327 (65.8)
 Medicaid13 566 (7.24)35 519 (7.52)24 532 (6.47)68 946 (6.62)61 677 (8.54)197 811 (8.58)50 870 (7.62)145 339 (7.62)
 Private67 515 (36.0)157 232 (33.3)83 541 (22.0)227 331 (21.8)67 137 (9.30)232 941 (10.1)119 296 (17.9)353 143 (18.5)
 Uninsured/self-pay17 533 (9.35)42 321 (8.96)18 815 (4.96)51 112 (4.91)21 142 (2.93)68 277 (2.96)31 181 (4.67)88 785 (4.66)
 No charge1955 (1.04)4912 (1.04)2427 (0.64)6412 (0.62)2143 (0.30)6938 (0.30)3443 (0.52)10 308 (0.54)
 Other8056 (4.30)20 694 (4.38)10 631 (2.80)30 763 (2.95)13 279 (1.84)46 018 (2.00)17 454 (2.61)51 139 (2.68)
Median household income, n (%)
 0-25th percentile53 512 (28.5)138 461 (29.3)118 562 (31.3)321 678 (30.9)241 506 (33.4)759 324 (32.9)202 643 (30.3)576 804 (30.3)
 26th–50th percentile49 137 (26.2)123 748 (26.2)98 577 (26.0)273 813 (26.3)179 666 (24.9)574 375 (24.9)166 910 (25.0)478 359 (25.1)
 51th–75th percentile44 827 (23.9)110 754 (23.4)86 114 (22.7)235 150 (22.6)159 258 (22.1)511 594 (22.2)153 051 (22.9)437 438 (23.0)
 76th–100th percentile36 561 (19.5)90 910 (19.2)70 220 (18.5)193 680 (18.6)131 317 (18.2)427 188 (18.5)134 422 (20.1)383 680 (20.1)
Previous myocardial infarction, n (%)15 960 (8.51)39 824 (8.43)52 681 (13.9)141 751 (13.6)102 186 (14.2)320 211 (13.9)43 104 (6.45)121 684 (6.38)
Previous percutaneous coronary intervention, n (%)22 868 (12.2)55 887 (11.8)63 391 (16.7)167 735 (16.1)84 026 (11.6)261 043 (11.3)39 647 (5.94)113 272 (5.94)
Previous coronary artery bypass graft, n (%)6092 (3.25)16 197 (3.43)39 613 (10.4)107 322 (10.3)114 528 (15.9)365 831 (15.9)45 829 (6.86)132 861 (6.97)
Previous dtroke/transient ischaemic attack, n (%)7685 (4.10)20 181 (4.27)28 301 (7.46)77 965 (7.49)64 133 (8.88)198 316 (8.60)93 850 (14.1)268 211 (14.1)
Smoker, n (%)88 190 (47.0)218 714 (46.3%141 409 (37.3)393 558 (37.8)198 060 (27.4)635 324 (27.6)182 802 (27.4)527 190 (27.7)
Number of chronic conditions, mean (SD)6.27 (2.49)6.33 (2.53)7.62 (2.90)7.63 (2.92)8.45 (2.85)8.50 (2.87)6.72 (2.79)6.74 (2.80)
Discharged against medical advice, n (%)1574 (0.84)4151 (0.88)4187 (1.10)11 411 (1.10)6631 (0.92)21 456 (0.93)6504 (0.97)18 660 (0.98)
Comorbidities, n (%)
Alcohol abuse6494 (3.46)16 036 (3.39)11 647 (3.07)31 468 (3.02)21 406 (2.96)70 385 (3.05)27 412 (4.10)75 604 (3.97)
Deficiency anaemias17 393 (9.28)46 442 (9.83)70 486 (18.6)192 228 (18.5)224 990 (31.2)710 870 (30.8)78 489 (11.8)225 386 (11.8)
Rheumatoid arthritis3785 (2.02)9556 (2.02)9675 (2.55)27 583 (2.65)21 613 (2.99)69 567 (3.02)17 533 (2.63)50 423 (2.65)
Chronic blood loss996 (0.53)2415 (0.51)3399 (0.90)9411 (0.90)6230 (0.86)20 228 (0.88)2200 (0.33)5897 (0.31)
Congestive heart failure845 (0.45)2114 (0.45)2557 (0.67)6476 (0.62)8248 (1.14)28 687 (1.24)78 366 (11.7)222 313 (11.7)
Chronic pulmonary disease25 926 (13.8)69 558 (14.7)86 308 (22.8)234 657 (22.5)270 606 (37.5)859 447 (37.3)96 820 (14.5)284 925 (15.0)
Coagulopathy6968 (3.72)17 557 (3.72)19 450 (5.13)53 685 (5.16)39 309 (5.44)130 058 (5.64)20 798 (3.11)57 880 (3.04)
Depression10 719 (5.72)27 628 (5.85)31 803 (8.38)88 358 (8.49)71 387 (9.88)228 614 (9.92)69 221 (10.4)201 786 (10.6)
Diabetes (uncomplicated)45 637 (24.3)116 177 (24.6)119 894 (31.6)324 429 (31.2)245 902 (34.1)784 008 (34.0)184 139 (27.6)531 989 (27.9)
Diabetes (complications)5961 (3.18)16 034 (3.39)29 525 (7.78)83 178 (7.99)82 200 (11.4)272 561 (11.8)38 169 (5.72)113 857 (5.97)
Drug abuse5545 (2.96)13 246 (2.80)9164 (2.42)24 342 (2.34)21 149 (2.93)66 451 (2.88)16 829 (2.52)45 107 (2.37)
Hypertension120 755 (64.4)305 639 (64.7)283 501 (74.7)780 804 (75.0)503 739 (69.8)1 582 547 (68.6)538 862 (80.7)1 534 597 (80.5)
Hypothyroidism13 762 (7.34)36 696 (7.77)46 299 (12.2)126 649 (12.2)120 546 (16.7)382 136 (16.6)91 644 (13.7)260 552 (13.7)
Liver disease1755 (0.94)4984 (1.06)5762 (1.52)16 087 (1.55)19 484 (2.70)67 939 (2.95)8021 (1.20)24 007 (1.26)
Lymphoma625 (0.33)1637 (0.35)2173 (0.57)6401 (0.61)7351 (1.02)23 483 (1.02)3271 (0.49)9826 (0.52)
Fluid and electrolyte disorders28 397 (15.2)71 960 (15.2)84 643 (22.3)226 227 (21.7)224 964 (31.2)715 719 (31.0)137 769 (20.6)379 610 (19.9)
Metastatic cancer1121 (0.60)3081 (0.65%)3733 (0.98)9576 (0.92)6535 (0.90)21 251 (0.92)7935 (1.19)23 484 (1.23)
Other neurological disorders7555 (4.03)19 947 (4.22)25 824 (6.81)69 112 (6.64)50 953 (7.06)158 626 (6.88)5314 (0.80)13 649 (0.72)
Obesity25 553 (13.6)61 910 (13.1)58 098 (15.3)158 657 (15.2)133 533 (18.5)456 557 (19.8)62 291 (9.33)180 488 (9.47)
Peripheral vascular disorders13 446 (7.17)35 018 (7.41)50 153 (13.2)138 124 (13.3)89 245 (12.4)287 203 (12.5)54 333 (8.14)157 794 (8.28)
Psychoses3641 (1.94)9580 (2.03)9812 (2.59)27 562 (2.65)22 214 (3.08)69 651 (3.02)23 200 (3.47)70 891 (3.72)
Pulmonary circulation disorders117 (0.06)302 (0.06)435 (0.11)1266 (0.12)1976 (0.27)7191 (0.31)19 436 (2.91)54 964 (2.88)
Renal failure16 534 (8.82)44 675 (9.46)88 060 (23.2)243 823 (23.4)322 697 (44.7)1 036 707 (45.0)85 559 (12.8)249 217 (13.1)
Solid tumour (no metastasis)1766 (0.94)5423 (1.15)5673 (1.50)16 493 (1.58)11 925 (1.65)38 351 (1.66)9878 (1.48)29 597 (1.55)
Peptic ulcer disease33 (0.02)85 (0.02)118 (0.03)329 (0.03)217 (0.03)617 (0.03)179 (0.03)425 (0.02)
Valvular disease168 (0.09)513 (0.11)859 (0.23)1972 (0.19)2174 (0.30)7706 (0.33)58 696 (8.79)168 753 (8.85)
Weight loss2920 (1.56)7610 (1.61)10 692 (2.82)28 281 (2.72)30 411 (4.21)98 559 (4.27)20 053 (3.00)56 401 (2.96)
Hospital characteristics
Bed size, n (%)
 Small14 871 (7.93)38 806 (8.21)34 982 (9.22)98 318 (9.44)86 352 (12.0)274 114 (11.9)71 213 (10.7)206 968 (10.9)
 Medium41 744 (22.3)104 183 (22.1)87 415 (23.0)237 481 (22.8)181 388 (25.1)572 060 (24.8)161 846 (24.2)464 790 (24.4)
 Large130 879 (69.8)329 425 (69.7)257 029 (67.7)705 375 (67.8)454 464 (62.9)1 459 321 (63.3)434 775 (65.1)1 234 577 (64.8)
Location
 Large metropolitan area (>1 million residents)89 596 (47.8)226 328 (47.9)192 542 (50.8)531 446 (51.0)396 487 (54.9)1 289 485 (55.9)361 982 (54.2)1 039 474 (54.5)
 Small metropolitan area (<1 million residents)83 143 (44.3)207 313 (43.9)152 369 (40.2)415 675 (39.9)241 334 (33.4)753 825 (32.7)237 152 (35.5)664 335 (34.9)
 Micropolitan area12 939 (6.90)33 503 (7.09)29 170 (7.69)79 146 (7.60)66 762 (9.24)205 946 (8.93)51 709 (7.74)151 933 (7.97)
 Not metropolitan or micropolitan1815 (0.97)5269 (1.12)5346 (1.41)14 907 (1.43)17 621 (2.44)56 239 (2.44)16 990 (2.54)50 593 (2.65)
Teaching status
 Metropolitan non-teaching/non-metropolitan hospital90 993 (48.5)229 094 (48.5)188 327 (49.6)509 538 (48.9)371 746 (51.5)1 150 095 (49.9)326 255 (48.9)945 793 (49.6)
 Metropolitan teaching96 501 (51.5)243 319 (51.5)191 098 (50.4)531 635 (51.1)350 458 (48.5)1 155 400 (50.1)341 578 (51.2)960 542 (50.4)
Processes of care
Coronary angiography166 053 (88.6)412 755 (87.4)251 398 (66.3)697 789 (67.0)51 704 (7.16)185 829 (8.06)4525 (0.68)13 353 (0.70)
PCI150 967 (80.5)371 369 (78.6)143 854 (37.9)406 568 (39.0)6442 (0.89)21 019 (0.91)607 (0.09)1728 (0.09)
CABG10 442 (5.57)28 947 (6.13)30 010 (7.91)91 171 (8.76)1565 (0.22)5299 (0.23)79 (0.01)176 (0.01)
Thrombolysis4279 (2.28)10 232 (2.17)3209 (0.85)8791 (0.84)662 (0.09)2116 (0.09)27 781 (4.16)76 140 (3.99)
Thrombectomy138 224 (73.7)340 128 (72.0)133 271 (35.1)379 196 (36.4)7328 (1.02)24 101 (1.05)11 976 (1.79)36 227 (1.90)
Echocardiography12 576 (6.71)31 794 (6.73)30 098 (7.93)83 134 (7.99)51 816 (7.18)173 009 (7.50)74 721 (11.2)209 437 (11.0)
Brain scan745 (0.40)1890 (0.40)3315 (0.87)9061 (0.87)3762 (0.52)12 313 (0.53)98 366 (14.7)275 829 (14.5)
CRT/implantable cardioverter
defibrillator
1139 (0.61)2952 (0.62)2593 (0.68)6407 (0.62)9701 (1.34)39 274 (1.70)249 (0.04)755 (0.04)
Length of stay, median (IQR), days2 (2–4)2 (2–4)3 (2–5)3 (1–5)3 (2–5)4 (2–6)3 (1–4)2 (1–5)
  • CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CRT, cardiac resynchronisation therapy; NSTEMI, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; STEMI, ST elevation myocardial infarction.