Table 1

Demographic characteristics and alcohol breath testing results from drivers who were submitted to random roadside breath testing within the limits of the city of Sao Paulo (2015–2018)

Baseline 2015 (N=1057)Round 2 2016 (N=1923)Round 3 2016 (N=1177)Round 4 2017 (N=1480)Round 5 2017 (N=1701)Round 6 2018 (N=1792)Round 7 2018 (N=1164)Total
2015–2018 (N=10 294)
Sex
 Male84.8%84.8%86.5%87.7%86.4%85.9%83.7%85.7%
 Female15.2%15.2%13.5%12.3%13.6%14.1%16.3%14.3%
Age
 Under 180.0%0.1%0.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%
 18–2417.3%12.2%2.0%4.7%2.2%3.8%5.8%6.6%
 25–5976.4%82.1%95.1%92.2%94.9%92.1%89.5%89.2%
 60 and over6.2%5.6%2.8%3.1%2.8%4.1%4.6%4.2%
Screening breathalyser
 Negative85.9%86.6%86.7%87.8%88.9%92.1%92.6%88.7%
 Positive +refusal*14.1%13.4%13.3%12.2%11.1%7.9%7.4%11.3%
 Only positive6.0%6.9%3.7%4.1%2.8%3.9%2.9%4.4%
 Refusal8.1%6.5%9.6%8.1%8.3%4.0%4.5%6.9%
Confirmatory breathalyser
 Under LOD (≤0.04)†13.4%25.7%10.2%19.4%14.8%14.9%18.6%17.4%
 Low positive (>0.04 to ≤0.34)24.8%21.0%15.3%12.2%10.1%9.9%8.1%15.3%
 High positive (>0.34)4.0%4.7%2.5%1.7%0.5%0.0%0.0%2.2%
 Total above legal limit (excluding refusals)4.1%3.4%2.4%1.7%1.2%0.8%0.6%2.0%
 Total % of refusals‡57.7%48.6%72.0%66.7%74.6%75.2%73.3%57.6%
  • *It includes the refusals among those screened positive for any alcohol and/or with clinical signs of intoxication.

  • †All breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) are shown on mg/L. The BrAC limit for administrative sanctions is 0.04 mg/L, while the criminal sanctions are set at 0.34 mg/L. Under lower limit of detection (LOD) denotes either a true negative or results under 0.05 mg/L (the LOD used for administrative sanctions).

  • ‡It includes the total refusals observed from the screening and confirmatory tests requested.