Table 1

Data extraction domains and elaboration

Domain/subdomainDescription
Article details
 AuthorAuthors of article
 YearArticle year of publication
 CountryCountry of origin
Study details
 Study aimAim and purpose of the study
 Study designStudy methodology, context and participant eligibility
 ParticipantsParticipant demographics and sample size
 ResultsKey results of the study
AECOPD ED presentation causal factorsCharacteristics of causal factors (or risk factors) reported as reason for AECOPD ED presentation (eg, environmental air pollution, respiratory infection, medication non-compliance)
AECOPD ED management and assessment practicesCharacteristics of AECOPD ED management and assessment practices
 AECOPD ED holistic managementCharacteristics of AECOPD ED holistic management (eg, multidisciplinary team)
AECOPD ED interventionsCharacteristics of AECOPD ED intervention practices including duration
AECOPD ED referral practicesCharacteristics of AECOPD ED referral practices
 Referral pathwayType of healthcare provider/service the patient with AECOPD was referred to by the ED (eg, pulmonary rehabilitation, palliative care, psychology, social work, pharmacy, physiotherapy, dietetics, nursing, smoking cessation)
 Non-referralFrequency of non-referral practices (eg, discharged home, mortality)
Patient outcomeDischarge status, hospital admission, length of stay, mortality
 Representation to EDRate of representation to ED with AECOPD within 24 hours, 7 days, 30 days, other
 Impact of referral pathwayImpact of AECOPD ED referral patterns on patient outcomes
  • AECOPD, acute exacerbation of COPD; ED, emergency department.