Table 2

Regression results of determinants of antibiotic use from public, private and informal sources

Site
Model number
Confirmed antibiotic use episodesConfirmed and potential antibiotic use episodes
Public providersPrivate providersInformal providersPublic providersPrivate providersInformal providers
CR (1)SAL (2)CR (3)SAL (4)CR (5)SAL (6)CR (7)SAL (8)CR (9)SAL (10)CR (11)SAL (12)
Independent variables
Would not buy antibiotics over the counter0.045*
(−0.01 to 0.10)
0.168**
(0.02 to 0.32)
0.074
(−0.02 to 0.16)
−0.040
(−0.13 to 0.05)
−0.050
(−0.11 to 0.01)
−0.008
(−0.09 to 0.08)
0.117**
(0.01 to 0.23)
0.530***
(0.16 to 0.90)
0.151*
(−0.03 to 0.33)
−0.095
(−0.33 to 0.14)
−0.031
(−0.10 to 0.04)
0.021
(−0.14 to 0.18)
Prefers antibiotics over alternatives−0.023
(−0.08 to 0.03)
−0.017
(−0.12 to 0.08)
−0.124**
(−0.22 to −0.03)
−0.009
(−0.10 to 0.08)
0.033
(−0.02 to 0.08)
−0.014
(−0.09 to 0.07)
−0.026
(−0.17 to 0.12)
−0.222*
(−0.44 to 0.00)
−0.161*
(−0.35 to 0.03)
0.054
(−0.18 to 0.28)
0.005
(−0.07 to 0.08)
0.044
(−0.10 to 0.19)
Does not keep antibiotics for future use−0.049*
(−0.10 to 0.00)
−0.008
(−0.11 to 0.09)
−0.060
(−0.14 to 0.02)
−0.013
(−0.12 to 0.09)
−0.024
(−0.08 to 0.03)
0.037
(−0.07 to 0.15)
−0.073
(−0.20 to 0.05)
0.185
(−0.18 to 0.55)
−0.056
(−0.25 to 0.14)
0.056
(−0.26 to 0.37)
−0.049
(−0.12 to 0.02)
−0.050
(−0.21 to 0.11)
Knows that antibiotic resistance can spread0.041
(−0.05 to 0.13)
−0.088
(−0.35 to 0.17)
0.030
(−0.11 to 0.17)
−0.051
(−0.34 to 0.24)
0.035
(−0.04 to 0.11)
−0.155***
(−0.25 to −0.06)
0.068
(−0.15 to 0.29)
−0.355
(−1.53 to 0.82)
−0.060
(−0.25 to 0.13)
−0.138
(−0.73 to 0.46)
0.013
(−0.09 to 0.11)
−0.247***
(−0.39 to −0.10)
Aware of antibiotics−0.028
(−0.12 to 0.07)
0.101*
(−0.00 to 0.20)
0.109**
(0.01 to 0.21)
0.017
(−0.08 to 0.11)
−0.135
(−0.38 to 0.10)
0.064**
(0.01 to 0.12)
0.093
(−0.20 to 0.39)
0.185
(−0.28 to 0.65)
−0.197
(−0.78 to 0.39)
−0.346
(−0.94 to 0.25)
−0.073
(−0.33 to 0.18)
0.130*
(−0.00 to 0.26)
Aware of drug resistance†−0.041
(−0.11 to 0.03)
0.056
(−0.08 to 0.20)
0.056
(−0.03 to 0.14)
0.086
(−0.04 to 0.21)
0.016
(−0.01 to 0.05)
0.014
(−0.09 to 0.12)
−0.143*
(−0.29 to 0.01)
−0.041
(−0.39 to 0.31)
−0.063
(−0.33 to 0.20)
0.113
(−0.16 to 0.38)
−0.024
(−0.09 to 0.04)
−0.027
(−0.20 to 0.14)
Female−0.005
(−0.06 to 0.06)
0.086*
(−0.01 to 0.18)
−0.005
(−0.09 to 0.08)
−0.064
(−0.17 to 0.04)
0.035
(−0.02 to 0.09)
0.049
(−0.03 to 0.13)
−0.122
(−0.27 to 0.03)
0.168
(−0
09 to 0.42)
0.001
(−0.19 to 0.20)
−0.296*
(−0.59 to 0.00)
0.028
(−0.04 to 0.09)
0.181**
(0.03 to 0.33)
Age−0.001
(−0.00 to 0.00)
−0.001
(−0.00 to 0.00)
0.003*
(−0.00 to 0.01)
−0.001
(−0.00 to 0.00)
−0.002*
(−0.00 to 0.00)
0.002
(−0.00 to 0.00)
0.001
(−0.00 to 0.01)
−0.001
(−0.01 to 0.01)
0.009**
(0.00 to 0.02)
−0.004
(−0.01 to 0.00)
−0.001
(−0.00 to 0.00)
0.007**
(0.00 to 0.01)
Education (years)−0.002
(−0.01 to 0.01)
−0.012*
(−0.02 to 0.00)
0.004
(−0.01 to 0.02)
0.012
(−0.00 to 0.03)
−0.006**
(−0.01 to −0.00)
0.010
(−0.00 to 0.02)
0.001
(−0.01 to 0.02)
−0.001
(−0.05 to 0.05)
0.015
(−0.01 to 0.04)
0.018
(−0.01 to 0.05)
−0.001
(−0.01–0.01)
0.010
(−0.01–0.03)
Speaking Thai/Lao0.161***
(0.07 to 0.25)
0.251***
(0.10 to 0.40)
0.005
(−0.12 to 0.13)
−0.010
(−0.12 to 0.10)
0.019
(−0.02 to 0.06)
0.058
(−0.01 to 0.13)
−0.016
(−0.46 to 0.43)
0.161
(−0.27 to 0.59)
−0.336
(−0.79 to 0.12)
−0.005
(−0.30 to 0.29)
0.033
(−0.05 to 0.12)
0.152**
(0.01 to 0.30)
Wealth Index−0.179
(−0.42 to 0.06)
−0.105
(−0.47 to 0.26)
−0.001
(−0.28 to 0.28)
0.340*
(−0.01 to 0.69)
0.158**
(0.01 to 0.31)
−0.121
(−0.35 to 0.10)
−0.417*(−0.90 to 0.06)−1.073*
(−2.26 to 0.12)
0.323
(−0.30 to 0.95)
0.505
(−0.30 to 1.31)
0.241**
(0.02 to 0.46)
0.065
(−0.73 to 0.86)
Buddhist religion−0.016
(−0.11 to 0.08)
−0.065
(−0.29 to 0.16)
−0.074
(−0.21 to 0.06)
−0.031
(−0.18 to 0.12)
0.010
(−0.02 to 0.04)
0.028
(−0.06 to 0.12)
−0.033
(−0.22 to 0.16)
0.037
(−0.40 to 0.47)
−0.122
(−0.44 to 0.19)
−0.031
(−0.35 to 0.29)
0.017
(−0.05 to 0.08)
−0.021
(−0.23 to 0.19)
Thai/Lao nationality−0.030
(−0.13 to 0.07)
−0.140
(−0.53 to 0.25)
−0.069
(−0.24 to 0.10)
0.013
(−0.11 to 0.13)
−0.003
(−0.06 to 0.06)
0.088
(−0.03 to 0.21)
0.009
(−0.37 to 0.39)
0.003
(−0.43 to 0.44)
0.005
(−0.52 to 0.53)
−0.118
(−0.46 to 0.22)
−0.078
(−0.24 to 0.09)
−0.603
(−1.95 to 0.74)
Majority ethnic group (Thai/Lao Loum)0.033
(−0.04 to 0.11)
0.169*
(−0.02 to 0.36)
0.065
(−0.04 to 0.17)
−0.059
(−0.19 to 0.07)
0.050**
(0.01 to 0.09)
−0.039
(−0.14 to 0.06)
0.049
(−0.11 to 0.21)
0.360*
(−0.04 to 0.76)
−0.044
(−0.27 to 0.18)
0.118
(−0.20 to 0.44)
0.035
(−0.03 to 0.10)
0.030
(−0.17 to 0.23)
Self-rated severity (1=mild, 2=medium, 3=severe)0.063***
(0.02 to 0.10)
0.009
(−0.08 to 0.09)
0.002
(−0.05 to 0.05)
0.062
(−0.02 to 0.14)
0.009
(−0.02 to 0.04)
0.023
(−0.03 to 0.08)
0.077
(−0.02 to 0.17)
0.254**
(0.01 to 0.50)
0.068
(−0.06 to 0.20)
0.107
(−0.17 to 0.39)
0.065**
(0.01 to 0.12)
−0.038
(−0.20 to 0.12)
Log of duration of illness episode (days)0.060***
(0.02 to 0.10)
0.036
(−0.01 to 0.08)
0.076***
(0.03 to 0.12)
0.046
(−0.01 to 0.10)
0.003
(−0.02 to 0.02)
−0.025
(−0.07 to 0.02)
0.275***
(0.16 to 0.39)
0.507***
(0.27 to 0.74)
0.257***
(0.10 to 0.41)
0.234**
(0.05 to 0.42)
0.005
(−0.03 to 0.04)
−0.012
(−0.13 to 0.10)
Constant−0.007
(−0.23 to 0.21)
−0.123
(−0.55 to 0.30)
−0.152
(−0.38 to 0.08)
−0.198
(−0.46 to 0.07)
0.117
(−0.12 to 0.35)
−0.207*
(−0.43 to 0.02)
−0.022
(−0.61 to 0.56)
−0.767
(−1.82 to 0.29)
−0.181
(−1.08 to 0.72)
0.029
(−1.17 to 1.23)
−0.006
(−0.37 to 0.35)
0.199
(−1.18 to 1.58)
Model statistics
Number604356604356604356604356604356604356
R2 0.1020.1060.0800.1330.1040.0460.1430.2180.1260.1360.0520.095
F statistic2.29***3.34***1.89**1.79**0.891.482.82***4.57***2.41***1.301.182.27***
Chow test (2)–(1)=0(4)–(3)=0(6)–(5)=0(8)–(7)=0(10)–(9)=0(12)–(11)=0
F statistic1.332.05**1.081.65*1.97***1.55*
  • Source: Authors’ analysis of survey data.

  • Notes: Illness episode level, including completed illnesses experienced by respondent or child under their supervision, excluding incomplete episodes. Population-weighted statistics, accounting for complex survey design. 95% CIs in parentheses.

  • *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01.

  • †Comparing Thai ‘due yah’ with the combined Lao ‘due yah’ and ‘lueng yah’.

  • CR, Chiang Rai; SAL, Salavan.